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Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS )

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  1. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) Building on Children’s & Families’ Strengths January 2012 Marlene Gross-Ackeret Jennifer Grenke

  2. Who’s Here? Parents? Teachers? Advocates? Administrators? Other?

  3. Advanced Organizer • Challenges/Rationale for PBIS • Overview of PBIS • Research Findings • Framework of support • What does PBIS look Like? • Wisconsin PBIS Initiative • Family/Parent Involvement in PBIS

  4. Challenges Facing Schools Today • Doing more with less • Educating increasing numbers of students with more diverse needs • Educating students with challenging behaviors • Creating “host environments” or systems that enable adoption & sustained use of effective practices

  5. Over-Reliance on Exclusion • Exclusion & punishment are the most common responses to conduct disorders in schools. (Lane & Murakami, 1987; Rose, 1988; Nieto, 1999; Sprick, Borgmeier, & Nolet, 2002) • Exclusion & punishment are ineffective at producing long-term reduction in problem behavior. (Costenbader & Markson, 1998) • “When the horse is dead, it’s time to dismount.”

  6. Research Findings Reviews of over 600 studies on how to reduce school discipline problems indicate that the leasteffective response to school violence are: • Disconnected “fix the student” counseling • Psychotherapy • Punishment (Gottfredson, 1997; Lipsey, 1991 & 1992; Tolan & Guerra, 1994; Elliott, Hamburg, Williams, 1998)

  7. Most Effective Trends in Discipline Practices • Proactive school-wide discipline systems • Social skills instruction • Academic/curricular restructuring • Behaviorally based interventions • Early screening & identification of antisocial behavior patterns (Biglan, 1995; Gottfredson, 1997; Colvin, et al., 1993; Lipsey, 1991, 1992; Mayer, 1995; Sugai & Horner, 1994; Tolan & Guerra, 1994; Walker, et al., 1995; Walker, et al., 1996)

  8. Basic Principles of PBIS • Just as we teach students to read, write & compute, we also need to teach students how to behave. • There is always a function to someone’s behavior, even if the person cannot tell you what that function is. • Discipline alone is not enough. Appropriate replacement behavior must be taught to prevent re-occurrence of misbehavior.

  9. The Old Way….(hopefully) • Referrals to Special Education may be seen as the “intervention” vs. actual changes in student’s learning environment • FBA may be viewed as required “paperwork” vs. a needed part of designing an intervention • Rely on interventions the system is familiar with vs. ones that are likely to produce an effect • Focus one-student at a time (reactive approaches) vs. capacity (systems) within schools to support ALL students

  10. Without Problem Solving Special Education Sea of Ineligibility General Education

  11. Bridging the Gap General + Intensive Resources General + Supplemental Resources Amount of Resources Needed to Solve Problem General Resources Intensity of Problem

  12. What is PBIS? A broad range of proactive, systemic, and individualized strategies for achieving important social & learning outcomes in safe & effective environments while preventing problem behavior with all students. (Sugai, 2007)

  13. School-Wide Systems FOR Student Success:A Response to Intervention (RtI) Model Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions 1-5% • Individual students • Assessment-based • High intensity • 1-5% Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions • Individual students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • 5-15% Tier 2/Secondary Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Small group interventions • Some individualizing • Tier 2/Secondary Interventions 5-15% • Some students • High efficiency • Rapid response • Small group interventions • Some individualizing • Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90% • All students • Preventive, proactive • 80-90% Tier 1/Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Illinois PBIS Network, Revised May 15, 2008. Adapted from “What is school-wide PBS?” OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Accessed at http://pbis.org/school-wide.htm

  14. Emphasis on Prevention at Each Level Universal Level • GOAL: To reduce new cases of problem behavior &/or academic failure Secondary Level • GOAL: To reduce current cases of problem behavior &/or academic failure Tertiary/Wraparound Level • GOAL: To reduce complications, intensity, severity of students with chronic problem behavior &/or academic failure

  15. Tertiary Interventions • Few families • Family voice • High Intensity • Tertiary Interventions • Few families • Family voice • Intense, durable procedures • Secondary Interventions • Some families • High efficiency • Rapid response • Planned Interventions • Some Individualizing • Secondary Interventions • Some families • High efficiency • Rapid response • Planned Interventions • Some Individualizing • Universal Interventions • All families • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All families • Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success through Family Involvement Academic Systems Behavioral Systems 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%

  16. Identify the needs ofthese students To meet standards. = Tiered Model for Students: To provide instruction& interventions 16

  17. To meaningfullyengage with parentsacross all Tiers Identify the needs ofthese parents = Tiered Model for Families: To develop differentiated outreach 17

  18. PBIS Biggest Idea! Instead of working harder (inefficient), schools have to establish systems & processes & use data & practices that enable them to work smarter (efficient, effective). • Establish a small number of priorities – Do less but better. • Consolidate/integrate whenever possible – Only do it once. • Specify what is wanted & how you’ll know when you get there – Invest in a clear outcome & assess progress. • Give priority to what works – Use research- & evidence-based practices & programs.

  19. Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior

  20. Data - How Decisions Are Made Components of decision making with PBIS • Data collection • T-chart • ODR form • A problem-solving team • Data at every meeting • Data use • Big 5 reports • Communication with school community about data, patterns, & decisions • Newsletter • Website

  21. Systems - How Things are Done • Procedures for classroom and non-classroom settings – lunchroom, bus, bathroom, assembly, transition/hallway • Procedures for reinforcing expected behavior • Procedures for responding to office discipline referrals (ODRs) • Procedures for meeting the needs of ALL students

  22. Practices - How adults Interact with Students Every time any adult interacts with any student, it is an instructional moment! PBIS emphasizes… • Teachingbehaviors like we teach academics • Modeling &practicing expected behaviors • http://www.hasd.org/schools/ges/pbis.cfm • Reinforcing expected behaviors • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fc8H_7D0Q1Y • Pre-correcting to ensure positive behaviors are displayed • Actively supervising to prevent problem behaviors

  23. What Does PBIS Look Like? • 3-5 Positively stated expectations are defined and taught for all students in all settings • >80% of studentscan tell you what is expected of them & give behavioral example because they have been taught, actively supervised, practiced, & acknowledged • Positive adult-to-student interactions exceed negative • Data- & team-basedaction planning & implementation are operating • Administratorsare active participants • Full continuum of behavior supportis available to all students

  24. Teaching Matrix

  25. Behavior is Acknowledged and Recognized

  26. Consistency across staff/locations http://schools.u-46.org/index.pl?id=27311

  27. Wisconsin PBIS Implementation • 872 schools trained by January 2012 • 761 schools implementing • 380 schools implementing with fidelity

  28. Wisconsin Data • 2010-11 Office Discipline Referral counts were received from 95 schools • 28 schools were implementing PBIS with fidelity by the end of the 2009-10 school year • 67 schools were implementing PBIS but hadn’t yet reached fidelity by the end of the 2009-10 school year 14% Lower

  29. # of Days of Out of School Suspension 52% Lower

  30. # of Students receiving Out of School Suspension 36% Lower

  31. # of Infractions Resulting in Out of School Suspension 43% Lower

  32. Sustaining Schools • 27 schools met fidelity by July 2010 and have sustained fidelity on all assessments since at least Spring of 2010. • 18 of them are Elementary Schools • 4 Middle Schools • 4 are Multi-Level Schools (K8/K12) • 1 is an Alternative School • Represent 12 school districts

  33. Academic Outcomes – Reading Proficiency

  34. Academic Outcomes – Reading Proficiency

  35. Academic Outcomes – Math Proficiency

  36. Academic Outcomes – Math Proficiency

  37. Call for Family Involvement Positive behavior support has been defined as a collaborative endeavor that includes all relevant stakeholders, including especially families. (Hieneman, Childs & Sergay, 2006; Koegel, Koegel, & Dunlap, 1996; Lucyshn, Dunlap, & Albin, 2002) “Facilitates the inclusion of and respect for the values and priorities of families and all team members.” APBS Standards of Practice Leadership Team –range of stakeholders (special education, regular education, families, mental health, administration). School-wide PBS Implementer’s Blueprint

  38. Family Involvement has been associated with… Higher grades, test scores, graduation rates Better school attendance Increased motivation, self-esteem Lower rates of suspension Decreased use of drugs and alcohol Fewer instances of violent behavior Henderson & Mapp (2002) – A New Generation of Evidence

  39. Assumptions Many problems at school reflect broader community issues Engaging the community will improve the effectiveness and outcomes of PBIS Students who need more intensive levels of support are often supported by systems other than the educational system

  40. Family Teaching Matrix Stolen from OSEP National Technical Assistance Center

  41. Contact Information: Marlene Gross-Ackeret grossackeretm@wisconsinpbisnetwork.org 608.697.8826 Jennifer Grenke grenkej@wisconsinpbisnetwork.org 920.855.2114 x 245