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TCP Connection Management and Congestion Control
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  1. TCP Connection Management and Congestion Control Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach 6th edition Jim Kurose, Keith RossAddison-WesleyMarch 2012

  2. provide logical communication between app processes running on different hosts transport protocols run in end systems send side: breaks app messages into segments, passes to network layer rcv side: reassembles segments into messages, passes to app layer more than one transport protocol available to apps Internet: TCP and UDP application transport network data link physical application transport network data link physical logical end-end transport Transport services and protocols

  3. network layer: logical communication between hosts transport layer: logical communication between processes relies on, enhances, network layer services Household analogy: 12 kids sending letters to 12 kids processes = kids app messages = letters in envelopes hosts = houses transport protocol = Ann and Bill network-layer protocol = postal service Transport vs. network layer

  4. reliable, in-order delivery (TCP) congestion control flow control connection setup unreliable, unordered delivery: UDP no-frills extension of “best-effort” IP services not available: delay guarantees bandwidth guarantees application transport network data link physical application transport network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical logical end-end transport Internet transport-layer protocols

  5. full duplex data: bi-directional data flow in same connection MSS: maximum segment size connection-oriented: handshaking (exchange of control msgs) init’s sender, receiver state before data exchange flow controlled: sender will not overwhelm receiver point-to-point: one sender, one receiver reliable, in-order byte steam: no “message boundaries” pipelined: TCP congestion and flow control set window size send & receive buffers TCP: OverviewRFCs: 793, 1122, 1323, 2018, 2581

  6. 32 bits source port # dest port # sequence number acknowledgement number head len not used Receive window U A P R S F checksum Urg data pnter Options (variable length) application data (variable length) TCP segment structure URG: urgent data (generally not used) counting by bytes of data (not segments!) ACK: ACK # valid PSH: push data now (generally not used) # bytes rcvr willing to accept RST, SYN, FIN: connection estab (setup, teardown commands) Internet checksum (as in UDP)

  7. Recall:TCP sender, receiver establish “connection” before exchanging data segments initialize TCP variables: seq. #s buffers, flow control info (e.g. RcvWindow) client: connection initiator Socket clientSocket = new Socket("hostname","port number"); server: contacted by client Socket connectionSocket = welcomeSocket.accept(); Three way handshake: Step 1:client host sends TCP SYN segment to server specifies initial seq # no data Step 2:server host receives SYN, replies with SYNACK segment server allocates buffers specifies server initial seq. # Step 3: client receives SYNACK, replies with ACK segment, which may contain data TCP Connection Management

  8. Seq. #’s: byte stream “number” of first byte in segment’s data ACKs: seq # of next byte expected from other side cumulative ACK Q: how receiver handles out-of-order segments A: TCP spec doesn’t say, - up to implementor time TCP seq. #’s and ACKs Host B Host A User types ‘C’ Seq=42, ACK=79, data = ‘C’ host ACKs receipt of ‘C’, echoes back ‘C’ Seq=79, ACK=43, data = ‘C’ host ACKs receipt of echoed ‘C’ Seq=43, ACK=80 simple telnet scenario

  9. TCP creates rdt service on top of IP’s unreliable service Pipelined segments Cumulative acks TCP uses single retransmission timer Retransmissions are triggered by: timeout events duplicate acks Initially consider simplified TCP sender: ignore duplicate acks ignore flow control, congestion control TCP reliable data transfer

  10. data rcvd from app: Create segment with seq # seq # is byte-stream number of first data byte in segment start timer if not already running (think of timer as for oldest unacked segment) expiration interval: TimeOutInterval timeout: retransmit segment that caused timeout restart timer Ack rcvd: If acknowledges previously unacked segments update what is known to be acked start timer if there are outstanding segments TCP sender events:

  11. NextSeqNum = InitialSeqNum SendBase = InitialSeqNum loop (forever) { switch(event) event: data received from application above create TCP segment with sequence number NextSeqNum if (timer currently not running) start timer pass segment to IP NextSeqNum = NextSeqNum + length(data) event: timer timeout retransmit not-yet-acknowledged segment with smallest sequence number start timer event: ACK received, with ACK field value of y if (y > SendBase) { SendBase = y if (there are currently not-yet-acknowledged segments) start timer } } /* end of loop forever */ TCP sender(simplified) Comment: • SendBase-1: last cumulatively ack’ed byte Example: • SendBase-1 = 71;y= 73, so the rcvrwants 73+ ;y > SendBase, sothat new data is acked

  12. Host A Host B Seq=92, 8 bytes data ACK=100 Seq=92 timeout timeout X loss Seq=92, 8 bytes data ACK=100 time time lost ACK scenario TCP: retransmission scenarios Host A Host B Seq=92, 8 bytes data Seq=100, 20 bytes data ACK=100 ACK=120 Seq=92, 8 bytes data Sendbase = 100 SendBase = 120 ACK=120 Seq=92 timeout SendBase = 100 SendBase = 120 premature timeout

  13. Host A Host B Seq=92, 8 bytes data ACK=100 Seq=100, 20 bytes data timeout X loss ACK=120 time Cumulative ACK scenario TCP retransmission scenarios (more) SendBase = 120

  14. TCP ACK generation[RFC 1122, RFC 2581] TCP Receiver action Delayed ACK. Wait up to 500ms for next segment. If no next segment, send ACK Immediately send single cumulative ACK, ACKing both in-order segments Immediately send duplicate ACK, indicating seq. # of next expected byte Immediate send ACK, provided that segment starts at lower end of gap Event at Receiver Arrival of in-order segment with expected seq #. All data up to expected seq # already ACKed Arrival of in-order segment with expected seq #. One other segment has ACK pending Arrival of out-of-order segment higher-than-expect seq. # . Gap detected Arrival of segment that partially or completely fills gap

  15. Time-out period often relatively long: long delay before resending lost packet Detect lost segments via duplicate ACKs. Sender often sends many segments back-to-back If segment is lost, there will likely be many duplicate ACKs. If sender receives 3 ACKs for the same data, it supposes that segment after ACKed data was lost: fast retransmit:resend segment before timer expires Fast Retransmit

  16. Host A Host B X timeout resend 2nd segment time Figure 3.37 Resending a segment after triple duplicate ACK

  17. Closing a connection: client closes socket:clientSocket.close(); Step 1:client end system sends TCP FIN control segment to server Step 2:server receives FIN, replies with ACK. Closes connection, sends FIN. client server close FIN ACK close FIN ACK timed wait closed TCP Connection Management (cont.)

  18. Step 3:client receives FIN, replies with ACK. Enters “timed wait” - will respond with ACK to received FINs Step 4:server, receives ACK. Connection closed. Note:with small modification, can handle simultaneous FINs. TCP Connection Management (cont.) client server closing FIN ACK closing FIN ACK timed wait closed closed

  19. Congestion: informally: “too many sources sending too much data too fast for network to handle” different from flow control! manifestations: lost packets (buffer overflow at routers) long delays (queueing in router buffers) a top-10 problem! Principles of Congestion Control

  20. End-end congestion control: no explicit feedback from network congestion inferred from end-system observed loss, delay approach taken by TCP Network-assisted congestion control: routers provide feedback to end systems single bit indicating congestion (SNA, DECbit, TCP/IP ECN, ATM) explicit rate sender should send at Approaches towards congestion control Two broad approaches towards congestion control:

  21. sender limits transmission: LastByteSent-LastByteAcked  min{CongWin,RcvWindow} Roughly, CongWin is dynamic, function of perceived network congestion How does sender perceive congestion? loss event = timeout or 3 duplicate acks TCP sender reduces rate (CongWin) after loss event three mechanisms: AIMD slow start conservative after timeout events CongWin rate = Bytes/sec RTT TCP Congestion Control: details

  22. TCP congestion control: additive increase, multiplicative decrease • Approach:increase transmission rate (window size), probing for usable bandwidth, until loss occurs • additive increase: increase CongWin by 1 MSS every RTT until loss detected • multiplicative decrease: cut CongWin in half after loss Saw tooth behavior: probing for bandwidth congestion window size time

  23. When connection begins, CongWin = 1 MSS Example: MSS = 500 bytes & RTT = 200 msec initial rate = 20 kbps available bandwidth may be >> MSS/RTT desirable to quickly ramp up to respectable rate TCP Slow Start • When connection begins, increase rate exponentially fast until first loss event

  24. When connection begins, increase rate exponentially until first loss event: double CongWin every RTT done by incrementing CongWin for every ACK received Summary: initial rate is slow but ramps up exponentially fast time TCP Slow Start (more) Host A Host B one segment RTT two segments four segments

  25. After 3 dup ACKs: CongWin is cut in half window then grows linearly But after timeout event: CongWin instead set to 1 MSS; window then grows exponentially to a threshold, then grows linearly Refinement: inferring loss Philosophy: • 3 dup ACKs indicates network capable of delivering some segments • timeout indicates a “more alarming” congestion scenario

  26. Q: When should the exponential increase switch to linear? A: When CongWin gets to 1/2 of its value before timeout. Implementation: Variable Threshold At loss event, Threshold is set to 1/2 of CongWin just before loss event Refinement congestion-avoidance fast recovery slow-start

  27. Summary: TCP Congestion Control • When CongWin is below Threshold, sender in slow-start phase, window grows exponentially. • When CongWin is above Threshold, sender is in congestion-avoidance phase, window grows linearly. • When a triple duplicate ACK occurs, Threshold set to CongWin/2 and CongWin set to Threshold. • When timeout occurs, Threshold set to CongWin/2 and CongWin is set to 1 MSS.

  28. TCP sender congestion control

  29. congestion control algorithm Th = ? CongWin = 1 MSS /* slow start or exponential increase */ While (No Packet Loss and CongWin < Th) { send CongWin TCP segments for each ACK increase CongWin by 1 } /* congestion avoidance or linear increase */ While (No Packet Loss) { send CongWin TCP segments for CongWin ACKs, increase CongWin by 1 } Th = CongWin/2 If (3 Dup ACKs) CongWin = Th; If (timeout) CongWin=1;

  30. TCP Futures: TCP over “long, fat pipes” • Example: 1500 byte segments, 100ms RTT, want 10 Gbps throughput • Requires window size W = 83,333 in-flight segments • Throughput in terms of loss rate: • ➜ L = 2·10-10 Wow • New versions of TCP for high-speed

  31. Fairness goal: if K TCP sessions share same bottleneck link of bandwidth R, each should have average rate of R/K TCP connection 1 bottleneck router capacity R TCP connection 2 TCP Fairness

  32. Two competing sessions: Additive increase gives slope of 1, as throughout increases multiplicative decrease decreases throughput proportionally Why is TCP fair? equal bandwidth share R loss: decrease window by factor of 2 congestion avoidance: additive increase Connection 2 throughput loss: decrease window by factor of 2 congestion avoidance: additive increase Connection 1 throughput R

  33. Fairness and UDP Multimedia apps often do not use TCP do not want rate throttled by congestion control Instead use UDP: pump audio/video at constant rate, tolerate packet loss Research area: TCP friendly Fairness and parallel TCP connections nothing prevents app from opening parallel connections between 2 hosts. Web browsers do this Example: link of rate R supporting 9 connections; new app asks for 1 TCP, gets rate R/10 new app asks for 11 TCPs, gets R/2 ! Fairness (more)

  34. Flow control and congestion control

  35. Some definitions Throughput: the gross bit rate that is transferred physically Goodput: application level throughput, i.e. the number of useful bits per unit of time forwarded by the network from a certain source address to a certain destination, excluding protocol overhead, and excluding retransmitted data packets. goodput is generally lower than throughput Protocol overhead Transport layer flow control and congestion avoidance Retransmission

  36. Summary TCP connection management TCP reliable data transfer TCP congestion control