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State and Perspectives of the Anaerobic Digestion Sector in Germany. Dipl.-Ing. David Wilken Fachverband Biogas e.V. www.german-renewable-energy.com. Operators of AD plants. Companies. Research institutes. Lawyers. Banks and others. Interested private persons. German Biogas Association.

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State and Perspectives of the Anaerobic Digestion Sector in Germany


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    1. State and Perspectives of the Anaerobic Digestion Sector in Germany Dipl.-Ing. David Wilken Fachverband Biogas e.V. www.german-renewable-energy.com

    2. Operators of AD plants Companies Research institutes Lawyers Banks and others Interested private persons German Biogas Association Steering Committee (7 members) elected by the members for a four-year-period Headquarters 23 employees Berlin Office 2 employees Board of Trustees elected Honorary Spokesmen of Regional Groups, Working Groups & Advisory Boards Regional offices (north, east and south) 3 employees 3,950 members (2010) organised in 23 regional groups each headed by an elected spokesman European Biogas Association (EBA) founded in February 2009

    3. Objectivesofthe German Biogas Association

    4. EBA – European Biogas Association 18 Countries • Germany (Fachverband Biogas and FNBB) • Estonia (Eesti Biogaasi Assotsiatsioon MTÜ) • France (ATEE Club Biogaz und Méthéor, • (Eden - Energie Développement Environnement) (Méthéor – Association pour la Méthanisation Écologique des déchets) • Great Britain (REA – Biogas Group) (ADBA - The Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Association) • Ireland (Sustainable Energy Ireland) • Italy (Consorzio Italiano Biogas) • Lativa (Latvijas Bigazes Asociacija) • Lithuania (Bioduju Asociacija) • Luxembourg (Biogasvereenegung) • Netherlands (DSM) • Austria (ARGE Kompost & Biogas) • Poland (Polskie Stowarzyszenie Biogazu) • Romania (Asociatia Romana Pentru Biogaz) • Sweden (Svenska Biogasföreningen) • Schwitzerland (Biogas Forum Schweiz) • Spain (Asociación Española de Biogás) • Czech Republic (Česká bioplynová asociace o. s.) • Hungary (Magyar Biogáz Egyesület)

    5. Structure • Biogas – the all-rounder • Key Figures & Legislation • Biogas from waste • Digestates as valuable fertiliser • Summary

    6. engine feed digester The biogas principle – like a concrete cow product: digestate products: heatand power

    7. Substrates Agricultural by-products Animal By-products Farm fertiliser Renewable commodities Organic waste of plants Liquid manure, Dung, ... Grass, maize, potatoes, mustard, silage, ... Beet leaf, harvest residues, … Brewer grains, old fat, vegetable waste, marc, distiller´s wash, ... Food residues, grease, slaughterhouse wastes, expired food, … Digestion Biogas Agricultural area Digestate Source: VLK (2002) (modified)

    8. H2/CO2 Acetic Acid Anaerobic degradation of organic compounds 1. Phase 2. Phase 3. Phase 4. Phase Hydrolysis Acidogenesis Acetogenesis Methanogenesis pH: 5-6 pH: 6,6 – 8,0 Biomass Sugar Biogas pH: 5,5 – 6,7 Polysacharide AminoAcid Protein CH4/CO2 FattyAcid Fats • FattyAcid (Propanoic Acid) Alcohol hydrolytic acidogenic acetogenetic methanogenic bacteria bacteria bacteria bacteria Quelle: FAL, Weiland (2003)

    9. Compositionofbiogas • Exampleof a typicalagriculturalbiogas plant: • - CH4 52 Vol. % • - CO2 35 Vol. % • - H2S 120 ppm • - O2 0,5 Vol. % component percentage CH 50-75 Vol. % 4 CO 25-75 Vol. % 2 H S 0-5.000 ppm 2 NH 0-500 ppm 3 H O 1-3 Vol. % 2 Dust particles < 5 N 0-5 Vol. % 2 => 1.000 ppm = 0,1 Vol.% Source: FNR (2003) modifiedby FVB

    10. Biogas – the all-rounder storage Biogas electricity heat natural gas grid fuel With the biogas from a hectare maize silage drives a natural gas car approximately 70,000 kilometres The biogas is burned in combined heat and power units (CHP) to produce electricity. 1/3 of the EU gas demand could be covered by biogas Beside the CHP produce heat as a by-product. Ca. 4.900 AD Ca. 40 AD 2 gas station Biogas is a baseandpeakloadcompatibleprimaryenergycarrierandtherefore an importantguarantorforfuturemobilityandenergysupply.

    11. Use of Biogas

    12. Biogas feed-in projects in Germany • Currently 40 feed-in plants in operation • Bio-gas station: 2 • 27 more projects planned or under construction • Large scale plants with participation of gas network operators are predominant • Political target: 6 % biomethane by 2020. • Market is only slowly developing and remains closed for small and medium sized plants. • Lack of political framework

    13. The Combined Power Plant • Located in all parts of Germany and connected: • 11 wind turbines • 20 solar plants • 4 biogas plants • 1 pumped-storage hydroelectricity plant • balancing of peaks and lows • through biogas and PSP • 100% energy supply from RES is possible

    14. Structure • Biogas – the all-rounder • Key Figures & Legislation • Biogas from waste • Digestates as valuable fertiliser • Summary

    15. Development of the number of biogas plants in Germany 6.000 2.000 1.893 1.800 Numberbiogasplants 4.984 5.000 Installaledelectriccapacity [MW] 1.600 3.891 1.400 1.377 4.000 3.711 1.271 3.500 1.200 1.100 3.000 1.000 2.680 800 2.050 2.000 1.750 650 1.600 600 1.300 1.050 400 850 1.000 390 617 333 450 200 370 256 65 274 50 186 159 182 139 0 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

    16. Biogas in Germany – Key figures

    17. German Renewable Energy Act (EEG) The core elements: • priority connection of installations for the generation of electricity from renewable energy sources • priority purchase and transmission of this electricity, • a consistent fee for this electricity paid by the grid operators, generally for a 20- year period, for commissioned installations. • nationwide equalisation of the purchased electricity and the corresponding fees paid

    18. Compensation by the German Renewable Energy Act (EEG)

    19. EEG – adapted by a lot of countries

    20. Biogasproduction in Europe (2007) 36 % 49 % 15 % 5.9 Million tonsofoilequivalents Landfill Gas SewageSludge Gas Agricultural Biogas Source: EurObserv´ER

    21. Structure • Biogas – the all-rounder • Key Figures & Legislation • Biogas from waste • Digestates as valuable fertiliser • Summary

    22. Biogas from municipal biowaste (Germany) 13 million t/a separately collected biowaste (incl. 8,7 million t/a municipal biowaste) Composting Fermentation Incineration energetic material recycling/ recovery 4 million t/a biowaste generate electricity, heat and biomethane in 969 biogas plants Source: Statistisches Bundesamt, 2008

    23. Allocation of waste treatment biogas plants

    24. Biogas yields of different substrates Source: KTBL 2005

    25. Potential ofmunicipalbiowaste Biowaste accumulation in Germany: 91,4 kg / inhabitant * year Biogas Potential : ~ 100 m³ / t biowaste Electrical Potential : 1,5 – 3 kWhel / m³ Biogas = 91,4 * 0,1 * 2,5 = 22,85 kWhel / inhabitant * year = 80.000.000 * 22,85 = 1.828 GWhel/ year in Germany (Agricultural, commercial & industrial waste is not included)

    26. Structure • Biogas – the all-rounder • Key Figures & Legislation • Biogas from waste • Digestates as valuable fertiliser • Summary

    27. Digestate as fermentation product

    28. Nutrients & Humus

    29. Quality Assurance for digestates • GüteGemeinschaftGärproduktee.V. • Verification of quality with higher requirements than the official requirements • Production and use of digestates according to national and European requirements • Biowaste Ordinance, VO (EU) No. 1774/2002 Regulations for condition and apply of fertilisers

    30. Structure • Biogas – the all-rounder • Key Figures & Legislation • Biogas from waste • Digestates as valuable fertiliser • Summary

    31. Summary Biogas is … • Sustainable energy production and substitution of fossil energy carriers • Production of organic fertilisers and reduction of mineral fertilisers by closed nutrient cycles (e.g. phosphorus) • Reduction of green-house-gas-emissions (by substitution of fossil energy carriers and mineral fertilisers, avoidance of methane emissions digesting manure and biowaste) • Creatingjobs especially in rural area • Increasingindependenceandsecurityoftheenergysupply

    32. Thank you for your attention david.wilken@biogas.org www.biogas.org