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Losses of FHIT and p16 in oral carcinogenesis – a FISH based study. Johannes Bier. background – „leukoplakia“ 1/2 . oral leukoplakia main epithelial lesion of the mucosa of the mouth (prevalence: 2.3%) heterogeneous group with varying risk

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background leukoplakia 1 2
background – „leukoplakia“ 1/2
  • oral leukoplakia main epithelial lesion of the mucosa of the mouth (prevalence: 2.3%)
  • heterogeneous group with varying risk
  • premalignant epithelial precursor lesion of OSCC (3-8% transform into cancer)
  • whitish patches
  • several grades: hyperplasia, low/high grade dysplasia, CIS, invasive cancer
  • mainly due to carcinogens, i.e. nicotine, alcohol, but also idiopathic
background leukoplakia 2 2
background – „leukoplakia“ 2/2
  • no standardized regime for treatment
  • follow-up with biopsy and histopathology currently gold standard
  • molecular biological techniques to be future proposals ?
  • no specific markers to predict malignant transformation yet
  • LOH and polyploidy ?
there are hints
there are hints...
  • molecular progression model for oral carcinogenesis: accumulation of genetic changes (Califano et al.,1996) (adopted from Fearon & Vogelstein 1990: colon cancer)
  • studies on LOH proposed 3p and 9p to be important for progression (Rosin et al., 2000; Mao et al.,1996)
  • greater probability of progression into OSCC
3p and 9p
3p and 9p...
  • 3p14 alias FHIT (fragile histidine triade), 9p21 alias p16
  • both tumor suppressor genes
  • considered to indicate transition from hyperplasia to dysplasia
fish what
FISH what?!

leukoplakia with hyperplasia – probes for FHIT

centromere

gene

fish what1
FISH what?!

invasive carcinoma – probes for FHIT

centromer

gene

discussion
discussion
  • already >90% of hyperplasia deletion for FHIT Califano et al. = 20%
  • our threshold: 25% / 13%  LOH studies 50%
  • FHITearlier event than p16; results underline role of FHIT regarding cell cycle regulation
  • possibility to distinguish deletion – amplification
  • hyperplasia does not show polysomy 3p or 9p
  • polysomy 3 indicator of increasing oral carcinogenesis