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Elements of Music (Continued). Melody. Melody. (General) the horizontal aspect of music; pitches heard one after another (Specific) a series of single tones that add up to a recognizable whole. Melody Characteristics. Direction Curve, Line Shape Beginning, Middle, End Continuity

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melody
Melody
  • (General) the horizontal aspect of music; pitches heard one after another
  • (Specific) a series of single tones that add up to a recognizable whole
melody characteristics
Melody Characteristics
  • Direction
    • Curve, Line
  • Shape
    • Beginning, Middle, End
  • Continuity
    • How one pitch leads to another
    • Setting up expectations and fulfilling them
slide4

5 3 1 3 5 1

Oh, say can you see,

3 2 1 3 4 5

By the dawn’s ear-ly light

slide5

5 5 3 2 1 7

What so proud-ly we hailed

6 7 1 1 5 3 1

At the twilight’s last gleam-ing

slide6

1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1

Are you sleep-ing? Are you sleep-ing?

3 4 5 3 4 5

Bro-ther John? Bro-ther John?

5 6 5 4 3 1 5 6 5 4 3 1

Morn-ing bells are ring-ing. Morn-ing bells are ring-ing.

1 5 1 1 5 1

Ding, dong, ding. Ding, dong ding.

motive
MOTIVE
  • A fragment of a melody, or short musical idea that is developed within a composition
  • A group of notes recognizable for its pitch and rhythmic formulation
    • Can be repeated in a number of ways and contexts
phrase
PHRASE
  • Part of a melody
  • A combination of motives forming a longer connected unit
  • Finished by a musical punctuation called a CADENCE
cadence
CADENCE
  • Resting place at the end of a phrase in a melody
  • Musical “punctuation mark”
  • From Latin cadare meaning “to fall”
  • 2 types
    • INCOMPLETE or OPEN
      • Does not sound like you can end the piece here
      • Gives expectation of continuing (Usually SD 5)
    • COMPLETE or CLOSED
      • Does sound like you can end piece here
      • Feels complete (Usually SD 1)
slide10

JOSEPH HAYDN Symphony No. 94 in G Major (the “Surprise”), Movement 2

motive

X

1 1 3 3 5 5 3

4 4 2 2 7 7 5

1 1 3 3 5 5 3

1 1 4 4 5 5

Y

X

Z

.

slide11

CADENCE

PHRASE

Motive

X Y X Z

melody1
MELODY
  • A succession of phrases making a whole span of music
slide13
PARAGRAPH =

SENTENCE =

WORD =

Melody

Phrase

Motive

Punctuation Mark Cadence

slide14

LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN

Symphony No. 5 in C Major, Movement 1

5 5 5 3

4 4 4 2

5 5 5 3

6 6 6 5

3 3 3 1…

motive

X

Beginning

of

Melody

One

X’ repeated

and transposed down

X

X’’ contracted

and transposed

X’ repeated

and transposed up

.

slide15

LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN

Symphony No. 5 in C Major, Movement 1

1712776

5 5 5 1 1712776

5 5 5 1

New

motive

Z

Beginning

of

Melody

Two

X’ from melody one

Inverted in shape

New

Motive Z

repeated

X’ from melody one

Inverted in shape

.

ludwig van beethoven symphony no 5 in c major movement 1
LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVENSymphony No. 5 in C Major, Movement 1
  • Motive “x” - the motive Beethoven called “fate knocking at the door” is constantly present in the whole movement
  • This motive appears in other 3 movements of symphony also
  • This motive IS the MAIN IDEA of work
theme
THEME
  • Main idea of a composition
  • Main idea that serves as a starting point for an extended piece of music
  • Something that unites and marks a piece
    • Can be a motive
    • Can be a melody
    • Can be other musical elements
      • Dynamics
      • Timbre, etc.
anton webern third piece from five pieces for orchestra
ANTON WEBERNThird piece from Five Pieces for Orchestra
  • What is theme?
  • What is main idea?
  • Is it a motive or melody?
  • What seems to be the focus or main idea of this composition?
melodic articulations
Melodic Articulations
  • STACCATO
    • short, detached, sharp-sounding
      • Example: JOSEPH HAYDN Movement 2 from “Surprise” Symphony No. 94 in G Major
  • LEGATO
    • smooth
      • Example: J.S. BACH “Wachet Auf” Chorale from Cantata #140
climax
CLIMAX
  • Highest pitch or emotional focus point in a melody or a larger musical work
slide21

J.S. BACH Cantata No. 140 “Wachet auf” (Awake), Movement 7

Phrase 1, 2 & 3

1 3 5 5 5 5 65

5 1 5 1232 1 7 6 5

5 1 5 6 3 4 3 2 1

.

slide22

J.S. BACH Cantata No. 140 “Wachet auf” (Awake), Movement 7

5 5 4 3 2 1

5 5 4 3 2 1

2 3 43 5 6 71

5 1 5 6 3 4 3 2 1

Phrases

4, 5, 6, 7 & 8

.

harmony
Harmony
  • (General) Results when different pitches are sounded at the same time
  • (Specific) How chords are constructed and how they follow each other
harmony terms
Harmony Terms
  • INTERVAL
    • “Distance” in pitch between any 2 tones
    • Can also refer to 2 pitches sounded simultaneously
  • CHORD
    • Combination of 3 or more pitches sounded at once
main concepts of harmony these are culturally determined
Main Concepts of HARMONYthese are CULTURALLY DETERMINED
  • CONSONANCE (n.), CONSONANT (adj.)
    • Intervals or chords that sound:
      • pleasant
      • relatively stable
      • free of tension
  • DISSONANCE (n.), DISSONANT (adj.)
    • Intervals or chords that sound:
      • unpleasant
      • relatively unstable
      • full of tension
examples
CONSONANCE

(1) JOSEPH HAYDN Movement 2 from “Surprise” Symphony No. 94 in G Major

(2) J.S. BACH Chorale from Cantata #140 “Wachet Auf”

DISSONANCE

(1) ARNOLD SCHOENBERG “Mondestrunken” (Moondrunk) from Pierrot Lunaire

(2) ANTON WEBERN Third piece from Five Pieces for Orchestra

Examples
chromaticism
CHROMATICISM
  • Using pitches that are “in-between” the regular notes of the scale
  • Leads to greater amount of DISSONANCE in harmony

#1 #2 #4 #5 #6

b2 b3 b5 b6 b7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

chromaticism1
CHROMATICISM
  • Use of chords containing tones not found in the prevailing major or minor scale but included in the chormatic scale (which has twelve tones); often found in Romantic music
  • Example: FREDERIC CHOPIN Nocturne in Eb Major
triad
TRIAD
  • Main type of chord used in classical music
  • Often called “the common chord”
  • Constructed of 3 notes each 1 step apart on scale

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

major triad
MAJOR TRIAD
  • Triad with the interval pattern that is formed by notes 1,3, & 5 of a MAJOR SCALE

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

minor triad
MINOR TRIAD
  • Triad with the interval pattern that is formed by notes 1,3, & 5 of a MINOR SCALE

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

slide33
MAJOR KEY

music based on major scale

MINOR KEY

music based on minor scale

KEY (tonality) - central note, scale, and chord within a piece, in relationship to which all other tones in the composition are heard