alcohols and ethers n.
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Alcohols and Ethers. Alcohols. Organic compounds containing a hydroxyl group -OH E.g. ethanol, cholesterol, retinol (vitamin A) Naming: -ol suffix e.g. methane + OH = methanol. Polyalcohols. Alcohols containing more than one -OH group - diol , - triol suffix Or hydroxy prefix.

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alcohols
Alcohols
  • Organic compounds containing a hydroxyl group -OH
  • E.g. ethanol, cholesterol, retinol (vitamin A)

Naming:

  • -ol suffix e.g. methane + OH = methanol
polyalcohols
Polyalcohols
  • Alcohols containing more than one -OH group
  • -diol, -triol suffix
    • Or hydroxy prefix

1,2-dihydroxyethane

1,2,3-trihydroxypropane

primary secondary tertiary alcohols
Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Alcohols
  • Depends on the number of carbon groups the hydroxyl containing carbon is attached to
    • 1 other carbon atom- primary
    • 2 other carbon atoms –secondary
    • 3 carbon atoms –tertiary
properties of alcohols
Properties of Alcohols
  • More polar and can hydrogen bond
    • Higher boiling points
    • More soluble in polar solvents
  • Long-chain alcohols are nonpolar (hydrocarbon portion) and polar (-OH)
    • Ideal solvents in organic reactions because they will dissolve both polar and nonpolar compounds
preparing alcohols hydration reactions
Preparing Alcohols:Hydration Reactions
  • Alkene + water --> alcohol
  • Follows Markovnikov’s rule
elimination reactions
Elimination Reactions

Dehydration (Condensation) Reactions:

  • Under certain conditions alcohols can decompose to produce alkenes and water
  • A catalyst (sulfuric acid) removes a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group from neighbouring carbons
  • Resulting in C=C and H2O
ethers
Ethers
  • Naming:
  • Add oxy to the prefix of the smaller hydrocarbon group and join it to the alkane name of the larger hydrocarbon group
  • E.g. CH3-O-C2H5 is methoxyethane
  • Practice!!
  • Molecules with C-O-C group
  • More polar than hydrocarbons
  • But, unlike alcohols, ethers cannot hydrogen bond
condensation reactions
Condensation Reactions
  • When two alcohols combine, an ether and water are formed