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Multiphase Field-scale Modeling: Brine Transport. Ann Cook Per Hatlevik Jonathan Levine Brice Loose Keegan Roberts Amber Sallerson Katy Schulte Martina Vlckova Thomas Willingham. Introduction to DNAPLs. Types Sources Behavior. PCE, TCE, DCE, VC, CT, CF, DCM, TCA.

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multiphase field scale modeling brine transport

Multiphase Field-scale Modeling: Brine Transport

Ann Cook

Per Hatlevik

Jonathan Levine

Brice Loose

Keegan Roberts

Amber Sallerson

Katy Schulte

Martina Vlckova

Thomas Willingham

introduction to dnapls
Introduction to DNAPLs
  • Types
  • Sources
  • Behavior

PCE, TCE, DCE, VC, CT, CF, DCM, TCA

introduction to dnapls3
Introduction to DNAPLs
  • Long lived
  • Difficult to remove
  • Health Hazards
    • Liver problems
    • Increased risk of cancer
    • Nervous system, or circulatory problems1
brine treatment technology
Brine Treatment Technology
  • How does it work?
    • Mobilization of the NAPL
      • Increase Gravimetric Forces
      • Decrease Capillary Trapping Forces
brine treatment technology5
Brine Treatment Technology
  • sn-a = NAPL-aqueous interfacial tension
  • r =effective pore size
  • rn= NAPL density
  • ra= aqueous phase density
  • g = gravitational acceleration
  • l = characteristic length of NAPL pool in vertical direction
brine treatment technology6

Area of Remediation

Sheet-piles

Impermeable Layer (e.g., clay)

Plan View

Profile View

Brine Treatment Technology
  • How does it work?
    • Closed system on 5 sides
brine treatment technology7
Brine Treatment Technology
  • How does it work?

No Flow

Boundary

No Flow

Boundary

brine treatment technology8
Brine Treatment Technology
  • How does it work?

Pump in Brine Layer

brine treatment technology9
Brine Treatment Technology
  • How does it work?

Lower Water Table

brine treatment technology10
Brine Treatment Technology
  • Gravimetric Forces

Removal of DNAPL

brine treatment technology12
Brine Treatment Technology
  • How does it work?

Removal of DNAPL

brine treatment technology14
Brine Treatment Technology
  • How does it work?

Remove Brine

<1% Original

DNAPL Mass

brine treatment technology15
Brine Treatment Technology
  • How does it work?

<1% Original = Meet

DNAPL Mass Standards

brine treatment technology16
Brine Treatment Technology
  • Why is it novel?
    • $$ Cheaper $$
    • Higher rates of removal than current technologies

Pump and Treat

Natural Attenuation

possible instabilities in the system
Possible Instabilities in the System
  • Physical
    • Density (changes and/or differences)
    • Excessive Surfactant Concentration bypass
    • Pore Clogging
  • Model
    • Fingering
    • Gravity - Rayleigh
rayleigh taylor instability
Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

Brine

  • Initial density stratified domain
  • Unstable system (small perturbations)
  • Occur in model and physical system

Ground

Water

rayleigh number
Rayleigh Number
  • Dimensionless Number
  • Ratio
sutra
SUTRA
  • Code written by USGS
  • Simulates single phase fluid flow and transport in the subsurface
  • Uses a combination of finite-element and finite difference methods to solve a series of equations
conservation equations
Conservation Equations
  • Species Balance Equation
  • Species-Summed Flow Equation
sutra transport
SUTRA Transport

Math Magic

sutra fluid flow
SUTRA Fluid Flow

Species Summed

Flow Equation

Darcy’s Law

Math Magic

requirements for sutra
Requirements for SUTRA

DL < 4aL

Pe < 2

  • DL = local distance between sides of an element measured in the direction parallel to local flow
  • aL = longitudinal dispersivity
sutra goal
SUTRA Goal
  • To model a freshwater system where we inject brine
    • 3D model
    • Relatively small in the y-direction
  • Visualize system instabilities
  • Removal of brine from system
simulations ran
Simulations Ran
  • Brine slumping model
  • Fully saturated fresh water system with brine injection
  • Unsaturated brine injection
  • Multiple well configurations
slide28

Example Problem: Slumping brine interface

High frequency spatial hydraulic conductivity

which admits an analytic solution in the case that the vertical scale is

much less that the horizontal (H << R), and a constant hydraulic

conductivity (Kc)

slide29

Homogenization permits approximation of K(x,z,t) as a constant

that captures the variability

Homogenized equations compare well with the accepted

numerical solution. High frequency variations are absent.

evaluate instabilities
Evaluate Instabilities

Injection Wells

Extraction Well

fingering
Fingering

Fingering due to viscous instability