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Atomic theories and Valence Electrons. Atomic Theories. Dalton thought that atoms were like smooth, hard balls that could not be broken into smaller pieces. Atomic Theories. Thomson suggested that atoms had negatively charged electrons embedded in a positive sphere. Atomic Theories.

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Atomic theories and Valence Electrons


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atomic theories
Atomic Theories
  • Dalton thought that atoms were like smooth, hard balls that could not be broken into smaller pieces.
atomic theories1
Atomic Theories
  • Thomson suggested that atoms had negatively charged electrons embedded in a positive sphere.
atomic theories2
Atomic Theories

Bohr Model- Everything moved around nucleus

Rutherford-

Atom mostly empty space

atomic theories3
Atomic Theories

Rutherford was surprised that a few particles were deflected strongly. This led him to propose an atomic model with a positively charged nucleus.

atomic theories4
Atomic Theories
  • Through the first part of the twentieth century, atomic models continued to change.

Cloud Model- 1920’s

Electrons move rapidly every which way

what does it mean to be reactive
What does it mean to be reactive?
  • We will be describing elements according to their reactivity.
  • Elements that are reactive bond easily with other elements to make compounds.
  • Some elements are only found in nature bonded with other elements.
  • What makes an element reactive?
    • An incomplete valence electron level.
    • All atoms (except hydrogen) want to have 8 electrons in their very outermost energy level (This is called the rule of octet.)
    • Atoms bond until this level is complete. Atoms with few valence electrons lose them during bonding. Atoms with 6, 7, or 8 valence electrons gain electrons during bonding.
valence electrons
Valence electrons
  • Number of E- on the outer shell (the outside ring of the onion) of atom, which determines reactivity of the atom
  • Noble gases: 8 valence e- except He(helium) has 2= stability
    • Elemental square info (stats)
  • Stability- Is not actively seeking any other elements (nope is not dating, is okay being alone because it has everything it needs)
  • Example: Oxygen has 6 valence e- = not stable
    • Actively seeking other elements (yep, dating but not exclusive,

has been seen with hydrogen and calcium)

valence electrons1
Valence Electrons
  • The number of valence electrons in an atom of an element determines many properties of that element, including the ways in which the atom can bond with other atoms.
  • Atoms usually react in a way that
  • makes them more stable
    • Scenario A: The number of valence e- increases to 8
    • Scenario B: The atom gives up loosely held valence e-

(usually 1 or 2 valence e-)

lewis dot structure
Lewis Dot Structure
  • Shows the valence electron dot structures of atoms and bonding that occurs among atoms

Yes ,this is Gilbert Lewis

what does that mean to me
What does that mean to me?
  • With a Lewis dot structure, you can show the valence e- of the atom
  • AND…How bonding occurs among different atoms!
bonding
Bonding
  • Chemical Bond- the force of attraction that holds 2 atoms together as a result of the rearrangement of e- between them
  • The number of valence e- determines whether or not atoms will bond together

Would be the bonding enforcers of the atom world