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1. PLANNING AND TEACHING FOR UNDERSTANDING. Who are students with learning and behavior problems?. Poor academic performance Attention problems Hyperactivity Memory Poor language abilities Aggressive behavior Withdrawn behavior Bizarre behavior.

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who are students with learning and behavior problems
Who are students with learning and behavior problems?
  • Poor academic performance
  • Attention problems
  • Hyperactivity
  • Memory
  • Poor language abilities
  • Aggressive behavior
  • Withdrawn behavior
  • Bizarre behavior

15 to 25 percent of all students have some type of learning or behavior problem,

6% of the student population are special education.

Learning disabilities are five times more prevalent than behavior disorders.

factors to consider when determining seriousness of problem
Factors to Consider when Determining Seriousness of Problem
  • Persistence of the problem
  • Severity of the problem
  • Speed of progress
  • Motivation
  • Parental response
  • Other teachers’ responses
  • Relationship with the teachers
  • Instructional modifications
  • Adequate instruction
  • Behavior-age discrepancy
  • Other
effective instruction for students with learning and behavior problems
Effective Instruction for Students with Learning and Behavior Problems
  • Individually planned
  • Specialized
  • Intensive
  • Goal-directed
  • Employ research-based methods
  • Guided by student performance

(Heward 2003)

learning and educational environments
Learning and Educational Environments
  • Most students with learning and behavior problems are educated in the general education classroom.
  • In many schools, reading or math specialists assist students with learning problems.
  • Some classroom teachers have a teaching assistant who provides supplemental instruction for students with learning problems.
  • Students with disabilities receive services through special education.
including students with learning and behavior problems continued
Including Students with Learning and Behavior Problems(continued)
  • Almost 47 percent of students identified as severely learning disabled spent 80 percent of their time in general education classrooms, whereas only 29 percent of students identified as seriously emotionally disturbed were in regular classrooms for that same amount of time.
more on inclusion
More on Inclusion
  • Lawmakers intended for students with special needs who are included in the general education classroom to receive accommodations for their learning and/or emotional needs within the classroom.
roles of special education teacher and general classroom teacher
Roles of Special Education Teacher and General Classroom Teacher
  • The special education teacher, as consultant/collaborator with the general education classroom teacher, is to facilitate the implementation of the student’s IEP and then promote effective practices and planning to assure appropriate instruction.
    • Working cooperatively with the special education teacher, the general classroom teacher is responsible for planning, monitoring, and delivering the instruction or intervention the student needs.
identifying students with learning disabilities
Identifying Students with Learning Disabilities
  • Typically,
    • individuals with learning disabilities have been identified through referral by classroom teachers or families.
    • these assessments included an IQ and an achievement test.
      • If the student’s IQ scores were a certain number of points above their achievement scores (large discrepancy between IQ and achievement scores), the student would be identified as having a learning disability due to their “unexpected underachievement."
alternatives to the iq achievement discrepancy model
Alternatives to the IQ-Achievement Discrepancy Model
  • The most frequently suggested alternative is response to intervention (RTI).
  • RTI typically involves
    • a multi-tiered system of interventions
    • a data collection system that informs decision making
    • ongoing progress monitoring
  • Provides a preventative approach to special education.
  • Promotes early screening and interventions.
  • Addresses concerns about the IQ-achievement discrepancy.
idea 2004 rti
IDEA 2004 & RTI
  • The 2004 reauthorization of IDEA, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, recommends that states and schools abandon the IQ–achievement discrepancy to identify students with learning disabilities and instead use an RTI approach. However, IDEA 2004 does not require that schools use RTI.
teaching students with learning and behavior problems
Teaching Students with Learning and Behavior Problems
  • Key players in teaching-learning process:
    • Learner
    • Teacher
response to intervention
Response to Intervention
  • RTI is the most current model for screening students and using their response to intervention as a data source to facilitate identifying students who need special education services.

(Burns, Griffiths, Parson, Tilly, & VanDerHayden, 2007; Glover & Vaughn, 2010)

why use rti
Why Use RTI?
    • An increase in more than 200% since the category was established.
    • Questionable procedures for determining learning disabilities through emphasis on IQ-achievement discrepancy and processing disorders.
    • Students identified using a “wait to fail” model rather than a prevention-early intervention model.
    • Subjectivity in student referral for services with teachers’ and others’ perceptions sometimes weighing too heavily in the process.
past challenges continued
Past Challenges(continued)
  • Students’ opportunities to learn not adequately considered during the referral and identification process.
  • Considerable variation from state to state concerning identification procedures and prevalence rates for learning disabilities.
  • An identification process that provides little information to guide instruction decision-making.
  • Problematic assessment practices, particularly for culturally and linguistically diverse students.
  • Disproportionate numbers of culturally and linguistically diverse students inappropriately identified for and served in special education.



challenges to implementing an rti approach
Challenges to Implementing an RTI Approach
  • Questions about who provides the more intensive secondary and tertiary interventions and the extent to which validated instructional practices exist in academic areas other than reading, such as math or writing.
  • Defining “response to intervention” so that school districts are able to determine
    • Responders from non-responders
    • The necessary professional development for practicing professionals
    • The role of families.
other issues and perceived barriers to implementation of rti
Other Issues and Perceived Barriers to Implementation of RTI
  • Personnel may not be adequately trained to implement RTI.
  • High-quality instruction in early reading is well understood, however, research based practices for implementing instruction in other domains (e.g., math, writing) are less well delineated.
  • Leaders at the school, district, and state levels are inadequately prepared to implement RTI practices.
other issues and perceived barriers to implementation of rti continued
Other Issues and Perceived Barriers to Implementation of RTI(continued)
  • Many folks perceive RTI as a special education initiative rather than a combined general and special education initiative.
  • Inadequate local and state level policies and resources may compromise effective implementation of RTI.
  • Effective practices models for implementing RTI at the secondary level are less well developed making it difficult for middle and high school personnel to implement RTI models.
ideia 2004
IDEIA 2004
  • Based on these initiatives, Congress passed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA 2004). The new law promoted RTI as a means for preventing learning difficulties and furthering accurate identification of students with learning disabilities.
critical elements of rti
Critical Elements of RTI
  • Screening and progress monitoring
  • Implementation of effective classroom instructional practices so that all students have an opportunity to learn (Tier 1)
  • Provision of secondary intervention (Tier 2) when students fall behind
  • Provision of a more intensive individualized intervention for students for whom secondary intervention is inadequate (Tier 3)
4 key components of rti models
4 Key Components of RTI Models
  • They implement high-quality, research-based instruction matched to the needs of students.
  • They provide universal screening to identify students at risk and monitor students’ learning over time to determine their level and rate of performance (for ongoing decision making)
  • They provide interventions of increasing intensity when students continue to struggle.
  • They make important educational decisions based on data.
using progress monitoring in the classroom
Using Progress Monitoring in the Classroom
  • Why use progress monitoring?
    • To keep track of student learning
    • To identify students who need additional help
    • To assist in arranging small-group instruction
    • To design instruction that meets individual student needs
    • To refer and identify students for special education based on data gathered during progress monitoring
progress monitoring continued
Progress Monitoring(continued)
  • How do I monitor student progress? (continued)
    • Assess progress by comparing learning goals with actual student progress. Students who are making adequate progress should still be assessed approximately three times a year to ensure that they are learning and continue to achieve at grade level.
three tiers of intervention
Three Tiers of Intervention
  • RTI models often discuss instruction or intervention in terms of “tiers.”
  • As students move through the tiers, the intensity of the interventions they receive increases.
  • Some RTI models include 3 tiers, and others include a 4th tier.
implementing interventions
Implementing Interventions
  • Standard treatment protocol
    • Used for all students with similar problems
    • Evidence based interventions
    • Instructional decisions follow a standard protocol
  • Problem-solving method
    • More individualized or personalized approach
implementing interventions problem solving method continued
Implementing InterventionsProblem-Solving Method(Continued)
  • Problem solving team:
    • Classroom teacher
    • School psychologist
    • Special education teacher
    • Other key educational stakeholders (e.g., parent, speech and language therapist)
implementing interventions problem solving method continued1
Implementing Interventions:Problem-Solving Method(Continued)
  • Process:
    • Define the problem.
    • Analyze the problem.
    • Develop a plan.
    • Implement a plan.
    • Evaluate the plan.
decision making teams
Decision-Making Teams
  • Should include members with relevant expertise
  • One team member must have expertise in learning disabilities.
  • Another should be an expert in the targeted area of concern (e.g., reading, math, behavior)
  • Another should have expertise in language acquisition, and if relevant, bilingual education (for English language learners).

RTI Camden, NJ


how team members facilitate rti
How Team Members Facilitate RTI
  • Reviewing progress monitoring data of students in interventions and for grade levels and the school as a whole.
  • Observing classroom instruction to ensure that research-based instruction is occurring.
  • Providing professional development to teachers and other key educators.
  • Assisting with data collection and monitoring.
  • Facilitating instructional decision making.
  • Organizing intervention groups and monitoring their effectiveness.
  • Communicating with parents and professionals.
rti for students who are culturally and linguistically diverse
RTI for Students Who are Culturally and Linguistically Diverse
  • ELLs benefit from teachers who are highly interested in ensuring that their students make adequate progress in reading and that they themselves have the knowledge and skills to provide appropriate instruction.
rti for students who are culturally and linguistically diverse continued
RTI for Students Who are Culturally and Linguistically Diverse(continued)
  • ELLs will be better served if teachers and school personnel do not expect or accept low performance and if they do not view students as undeserving of effective interventions.
  • ELLs who exhibit learning disabilities may be underidentified and undertreated because school personnel may not have the knowledge and skills needed to identify and treat these students.
working with families
Working With Families
  • Family involvement is required in all aspects of identifying students with disabilities.
  • If schools are using RTI models, families must be informed and involved in the process.
  • Families can request a formal evaluation for a disability at any time.
  • The Council for Exceptional Children suggests that schools let families know about their child’s participation in the RTI process at least by Tier 2.
role of teachers
Role of Teachers
  • Identify students who need intervention.
  • Provide evidence-based interventions.
  • Monitor the effects of the intervention.
  • Make decisions, in consultation with other key professionals, about the need for more or less intensive intervention.
  • Meet regularly with interested stakeholders (parents, other teachers, school psychologist).

**The teacher plays the most important roles in implementing an RTI model.

using rti data to identify students with disabilities
Using RTI Data to Identify Students with Disabilities
  • You are likely to work in a school or district that uses data from screening, progress monitoring, and other records related to students’ progress in primary and secondary interventions to influence decision making about identifying students with learning disabilities.
3 learning theory
3. Learning Theory

This chapter highlights some of the critical features about how we learn that apply to delivering effective instruction and providing classroom management. Models and theories of learning can assist teachers in understanding and explaining how students learn.

common features of cognitive strategy instruction
Common Features of Cognitive Strategy Instruction
  • Strategy steps
  • Modeling
  • Self-regulation
  • Verbalization
  • Reflective thinking

** See next slide for example of how CSI is used in a resource science class to help students understand the science concepts and textbook.

sociocultural theory
Sociocultural Theory
  • Sociocultural theory (Vygotsky, 1978) is similar to cognitive strategy instruction in that it highlights the importance of modeling and the use of language to facilitate learning. However, the theory assumes that learning is socially constructed and, as a social activity, is highly influenced by the funds of knowledge that learners bring to situations. Knowledge is meaningfully constructed in these social activities.

(Lantolf & Thorne, 2006; Moll, 1990; Tharp, Estrada, Dolton, and Yamauchi, 1999)

sociocultural theory continued
Sociocultural Theory(continued)
  • Three concepts that are particularly important for teaching students who may have special needs or are from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds:
    • the use of resources
    • the social nature of learning (including the use of interactive dialogue), and
    • the use of scaffolded instruction.
schema theory
Schema Theory
  • Whereas applied behavior analysis focuses on observable behaviors and views learning as establishing functional relationships between a student’s behavior and the stimuli in the environment, cognitive learning theory focuses on what happens in the mind, and views learning as changing the learner’s cognitive structure.
    • Schemas
teaching implications of schema theory
Teaching Implications of Schema Theory
  • When teaching, think about how you can modify your teaching and the learning environment to facilitate directing students’ attention to relevant stimuli and their perception of incoming information. How can you teach students to use executive functioning to coordinate the various learning and memory strategies? (See next slide for general implications.)
teaching implications of schema theory continued
Teaching Implications of Schema Theory (continued)
  • Provide cues to students so they can be guided to the relevant task(s) or salient features of the task.
  • Have students study the critical feature differences between stimuli when trying to perceive differences.
  • Have the students use the context to aid in perception.
  • Facilitate the activation of schemas, and provide labeled experiences.
  • Teach students how to be flexible thinkers and to solve problems, thereby encouraging them to use executive functioning.

Primary Instruction – Tier 1

Who are the key players?

Secondary Instruction – Tier 2

Who are the key players?

Tertiary Instruction – Tier 3

Who are the key players?

universal screening
Universal Screening
  • Universal screening in reading, and sometimes in math, is an essential component of RTI models at the Tier 1 level.
    • It involves administering same test to all students to determine who is likely to be at risk for academic difficulties.
    • In many schools, screening is carried out 3 times a year.
    • Screening instruments usually have few items and are short in duration.
    • Screening is used to determine whether additional testing is needed.
    • Screening involves providing a reliable and valid measure that can be easily and quickly administered to large numbers of students to determine whether these students have academic difficulties.
progress monitoring
Progress Monitoring
  • Progress monitoring involves frequent and ongoing measurement of student knowledge and skills and the examination of student data to evaluate instruction.
  • How do I monitor student progress?
  • Assess all students at the beginning of the year in the critical areas for their grade level
  • Use assessments to identify students who need extra help and to create goals for learning. Once you determine which students require extra help, you can plan small-group instruction.
  • Monitor the progress of students in small groups more frequently (weekly or monthly) in the specific skill or area being worked on.
group activity
Group Activity
  • List the Screening Instruments used at your school.
  • How often are they administered?
  • How are the result made available to teachers?
  • List the Monitoring methods you usein your classroom.
  • How often are they used?
  • Describe how they are used.
  • Describe how you keep a record of the results?
features of effective instruction
Features of Effective Instruction
  • Will benefit all students but particularly helpful for students with learning and behavior problems:
    • Assessing progress
    • Designing instruction
      • Determining goals of instruction
      • Flexible grouping
      • Adaptations
      • Scaffolding
      • Careful use of instructional time
    • Delivering instruction
      • Quick pacing
      • Sufficient opportunities for student response
      • Error correction
stages of learning in acquiring proficiency in learning
Stages of Learning in Acquiring Proficiency in Learning
  • First stage of learning – entry
  • Second stage – acquisition
  • Third stage – proficiency
  • Fourth stage – maintenance
  • Fifth stage – generalization
  • Sixth stage – application
role of special education teacher
Role of Special Education Teacher
  • Once a student has been identified as needing additional assistance, the special education teacher may be consulted. The special education teacher plays several important roles in a multitiered RTI model.
role of special education teacher continued
Role of Special Education Teacher(continued)
  • Collaborating with general education teachers and providing consultation services.
  • Helping to identify children with disabilities.
  • Offering intensive interventions to Tier 3 students.
  • Helping Tier 3 students access the general education curriculum.

**Special educators may work with struggling students who have not been labeled as having disabilities.

applied behavior analysis
Applied Behavior Analysis
  • Manipulating Antecedents
    • Instructional Content
    • Classroom Schedule
    • Classroom Rules
    • Room Arrangement
    • Peer Interactions
applied behavior analysis continued
Applied Behavior Analysis (continued)
  • Increasing Desirable Behaviors through Consequences
    • Progress monitoring
    • Reinforcement
      • Intrinsic vs. Tangible
    • Secondary reinforcement
    • Shaping
    • The Premack Principle
    • Group contingencies
    • Contingency contracting
applied behavior analysis continued1
Applied Behavior Analysis (continued)
  • Decreasing undesirable behaviors through consequences
    • Extinction
    • Differential reinforcement
    • Response cost
    • Punishment
    • Time-Out
identifying why students do not respond to instruction
Identifying Why Students Do Not Respond to Instruction
  • Before concluding that a student is a non responder who needs more intensive services, consider that there are many reasons the student may not be responding to instruction, such as:
    • The method is not an effective one with this student, and a different approach would yield better results.
    • The level of instruction might not be a good match for the student.
    • The environment might not be conducive to learning.
responders and non responders to intervention
Responders and Non-responders to Intervention
  • Responders or high responders – students who respond well to interventions
  • Non-responders – students who make minimal or no gains after being taught with high-quality validated interventions
cognitive strategy instruction
Cognitive Strategy Instruction
  • Cognitive strategy instruction (CSI) integrates ideas from behavioral, social, and cognitive learning theories and assumes that cognitive behavior (thinking processes), like observable behaviors, can be changed.
example of csi
Example of CSI
  • Strategy steps
    • Teacher selects the steps she wants the students to use when they read their science text.
    • She and the students discuss the strategies they currently use and their effectiveness.
    • They discuss the importance of improving their skills and the payoff for improvement.
  • Modeling
    • Teacher tells students about the steps she uses when she reads.
    • She reads and explains what she is thinking.
example of csi continued
Example of CSI(continued)
  • Modeling (continued)
    • Teacher talks them through the steps as the students try them.
  • Self-regulation
  • Verbalization
    • Teacher gives students lots of opportunities to practice the steps when reading their textbooks, encouraging them to say the steps aloud as they work through them.
example of csi continued1
Example of CSI(continued)
  • Reflective thinking
    • Teacher provides feedback on how they are doing, and she teaches them how to evaluate their own performance.
executive functioning or metacognition
Executive Functioning or Metacognition
  • The specific processes in the information-processing system (i.e., attention, perception, working memory, and long-term memory) are controlled or coordinated by what has been referred to as executive functioning (also referred to as metacognition).