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X. The Beginning of the End

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  1. X. The Beginning of the End

  2. A. The CSS Hunley • The CSS Hunley was designed and built by Horace L. Hunley • After a successful test run, the Hunley was brought to Charleston, SC in August of 1863 • PGT Beauregard, after being relieved of his command after Shiloh, was sent to see to the defenses of Charleston • The Hunley was taken to Charleston and placed under his command- not the Navy • The Hunley was given to the Navy shortlyafter the Union began the bombardment of Charleston from Morris Island

  3. It is then that the first crew of the Hunley was assembled • The Hunley made its first tragic dive to the bottom on August 29, 1863- it was reported that the commander of the ship had stepped on the dive plane causing the submarine to sink dive with the hatches open: 5 of the 9 crew drowned • Within 72 hours, Beauregard had fished the submarine off the bottom and work began to restore it • H.L. Hunley convinced the navy that they should allow he and others familiar with the sub to man it- they were allowed

  4. H.L. Hunley gathered a crew of eight for the submarine’s second dive • On October 15, 1863, H.L. Hunley and her crew set out on a maneuver to pass underneath a ship- that was their method attacking (torpedo) • An error in the dive, followed by an error in releasing the keel ballasts caused the Hunley to dive and drive itself nose first in the icy harbor bottom- all eight men, including Hunley were lost • The Hunley was retrieved several days later and was put back under the command of the army & LT. George Dixon

  5. Lt. Dixon found a crew of nine and led them on what would become a historical mission • Improvements had made on the Hunley- instead of dragging the torpedo, they used a spar torpedo (a 10 foot spear with the torpedo attached) • On February17, 1864, Lt. Dixon and the crew of the Hunley set out from Charleston to sinkthe USS Housatonic • The spar torpedo impacted theHousatonicand as the Hunley pulled awayit exploded sinking quickly • However, the Hunley suffered from the impact as well and sank to the bottom of the harbor

  6. The Recovery • The Hunley was lost for 131 years until it was discovered in 1995 in the harbor • The Hunley was raised in 2000 and the crew of the Hunley was laid to rest on April 17, 2004 in Magnolia Cemetery with the other 2 crews- 140 years after they perished

  7. B. Virginia Campaign • March 9, 1864: Ulysses S. Grant is promoted to Lt. General and General-in-Chief • Halleck became strictly administrative, while Grant took field command • Grant eliminated sideshows and concentrated forces • Grant’s solution for success • Capturing southern land meant nothing • Union must destroy the two principle armies

  8. C. The Final Armies • West • Overall Command: William T. Sherman • Army of the Tennessee: Gen. James B. McPhereson • Army of the Cumberland: Gen. George H. Thomas • Army of the Ohio: Gen. John M. Schofield • East • Overall Command: Ulysses S. Grant • Army of the Potomac: Gen. George G. Meade • Army of the James: Gen. Benjamin Butler

  9. The CSA had two principle armies fighting the Union • Army of Northern Virginia: Gen. Robert E. Lee • Army of Tennessee: Gen. Joseph E. Johnston

  10. D. Battle of the Wilderness • Grant crosses the Rapidan River and marches through the Wilderness • Grant is headed forRichmondin order to drawLeeout into the open • Lee catchesGrantin the wilderness and hitshimthere

  11. E. Day 1 of the Wilderness • Grant’s numerical & artillery advantage are nullified in the woods • Union control most of the early fighting • The tide turns when Longstreet arrives and joins the fight • Fighting was confused and occurred in small patches • Forest fires break out & burn through the night killing most of the wounded soldiers

  12. F. Day 2 of the Wilderness • Union progress is stoppedby General Longstreet • Longstreet controls the center and pushesBurnside back • CSA attacks fail as well asUnion advances • Longstreet is shot by his own men

  13. G. Spotsylvania • Grant sidesteps and tries to get in betweenLee and Richmond • Lee realizesGrant’s planand beatshimto Spotsylvania Courthouse • May 9, 1864 begins 12 days of fighting between the two armies • Yellow Tavern: • Gen. Sheridan’s cavalry attempts to raidRichmond • Gen. Stuart’s cavalry cuts Sheridan off at Yellow Tavern • CSA stop Sheridan, but Stuart is mortally wounded and dies in Richmond the next day

  14. H. Battle of Spotsylvania • Grant had Gen. Hancock attackEwell at a salient in the CSA line • Gen. John B. Gordon stopped theUnion advance • The fiercest fighting occurred at what was known as the bloody angle • Gen. Anderson ends the 4th day of fighting by stopping theUnion progress

  15. I. Cold Harbor • June 3: Grant orders an all out attack onCSA lines • CSA lines were solid as their trenches were zigzagged-Union soldierstook fire from the front and side • 5 mile killing zone • Battle lasted one hour and Union casualties were high (12,000)

  16. J. Sherman’s Campaign and Atlanta • Sherman went directly afterJoe Johnston and the CSA • Every time Sherman hit, Johnston would retreat further south • Sherman’s overconfidence led to a massive Union defeat at Kennesaw Mountain • Though, Johnston won Kennesaw Mt., he continued the retreat toward Atlanta • Fed up with this tactic, Davis replaces Johnston with Gen. John B. Hood • Gen. Hood was not the best selection- he had no use of his arm and his right leg was amputated

  17. Hood proceeds to attack theUnion • Hood attacksMcPheresonand fails- Hood suffers 8,000 casualties butMcPhereson is killed • Hood attacksShermanand fails- 2,500 casualties • Sherman opens the artillery on the city of Atlanta • Sherman cuts the last rail line to the cityand Hood evacuates in September of 1864

  18. K. Sherman’s March to the Sea • Sherman dispatches 30,000 men under Gen. Thomas to guard Nashville • Sherman’s line was 60 miles wide as he destroys everything in his path • Sherman met no resistance until Savannah • 9,000 men guarded the city • Sherman takes Savannah on December 21 • Sherman sends a message to Lincoln: “I beg to present to you a Christmas Gift, the city of Savannah

  19. L. 1st Assault on Petersburg • Significance of Petersburg • 23 miles south of Richmond • The hub of 5 RR • The rail lifeline of Richmond • Petersburg was well guarded by trenches and 55 artillery batteries • Grant’s Plan: • June 6: Grant sends Sheridan & the cavalry on diversionary attacks in Charlottesville forcingLee to dispatch Wade Hampton & the CSA cavalry • July 12: Grant sends Butler with his 2 corps across the James River headed for Petersburg

  20. Butler crossed over a pontoon bridge near Petersburg • PGT Beauregard had been shifted to the defense of Petersburg • Butler attacks theCSAin small groups capturing parts of theCSA line • Lee dispatches A.P. Hill to Petersburg as reinforcement- Beauregard faced a force of 60,000 compared to his 10,000 • Butler’s attacks are driven back • Grant calls for more attacks, but the Union is driven back byLee’s veterans-the Union must now engage in a siege of Petersburg

  21. M. Siege and the Battle of the Crater • The CSA could not afford to give up the town • The Union had good supply lines, while theCSA sometimes went weeks without food rations • During the siege, the 48th PA coal miners devised a plan to dig a tunnel underneath theCSA trenches • They began on June 25 and finished 1 month later • They packed the shaft with 4 tons of black powder • The explosion occurred on July 30 around 5pm • The hole created was 30 ft. deep, 80 ft. wide, and 170 ft. long • The CSA lost 278 men and a battery of artillery

  22. The Union sent 2 divisions into the crater • Lee’s artillery and infantry fired directly into the crater at the trappedUnion soldiers- this was disastrous for the Union • Grant then realized, the only way to take Petersburg was to exploit his numerical advantage and overextend theCSA lines • 1864 closes with Lee’s 50,000 men fighting off starvation and trying to survive the winter • The final assault on Petersburg the following spring saw Grant extend his trenches in a circle around the city- 50 miles long • Lee realizes he can no longer defend Petersburg or Richmond

  23. N. Five Forks • Major intersection that led to the last rail line open to the CSA • Lee sent George Pickett • Grant sent Sheridan • Lee gave strict orders to take the intersection at all costs • Pickett arrived first, poorly placed his men, and then attended a shad bake • Sheridan plowed over theCSA defensesand the Union took control of the intersection • Pickett was relieved of command

  24. O. Fall of Richmond • Lee informed Davis that he could no longer protect Richmond and Lee withdraws to Amelia • Grant orders an all-out assault on Richmond • April 2: Richmond is evacuated • Davis and his cabinet are moved to Danville, VA • CSA set fire to the military equipment- blaze gets out of hand and half the city burns • A.P. Hill is shot and killed back at Petersburg • Lee is desperate to get to Lynchburg to join up with Johnston, but his army needs food- they receive a train load of supplies, but no food • Lee continues the retreat on April 6

  25. Along the retreat, at the rear of the column, Gen. Ewell and 1/3 of Lee’s men are captured at Saylor’s Creek • Grant asksLeeto surrender • Lee tries to push on to rejoin Johnston, but when he reached Appomattox Courthouse, he foundSheridanin his way • The CSA were strong enough to move him andGrant was closing in from behind

  26. P. Lee Surrenders • April 9, 1865: Lee metGrantat the house of Wilmur McClean in Appomattox • Surrender Terms: • CSA must lay down their arms and supplies • Officers may keep side arms (swords) • Soldiers must sign paroles-no federal troopwill bother a CSA soldier returning home in peace • Grantallowed the men with their own horses to keep them for the plowing season • Grant ordered 25,000 rations to be given toCSA soldiers

  27. When news reached outside the house, cheering erupted • Grant put a stop to the celebration saying:“The rebels are our countrymen again” • The formal surrender: • April 12: The surrender would take place without Lee & Grant • It took place between the soldiers: Gen. John B. Gordon surrendered to Gen. Joshua L. Chamberlain • Other surrenders: • April 26: Johnston surrenders to Sherman • May 26: Gen. Kirby Smith surrenders to Gen. Edmund Canby