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Mammals. Chapter 32. Introduction. Ch 32.1. What are Mammals?. Class: Mammalia 2 Key Features Hair - warmth Mammary Glands – produce milk for young Breathe Air Have 4-chambered hearts Endotherms: generate and conserve body heat. Evolution.

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Chapter 32

what are mammals
What are Mammals?
  • Class: Mammalia
  • 2 Key Features
    • Hair - warmth
    • Mammary Glands – produce milk for young
  • Breathe Air
  • Have 4-chambered hearts
  • Endotherms: generate and conserve body heat
  • Neither hair nor mammary glands are preserved in the fossil record.
  • Other distinguishing characteristics help identify mammals including:
    • Lower jaw consisting of a large, teeth-bearing bone connected to the skull by a joint.
    • Complex teeth that are replaced once in the lifetime.
    • Distinctive features of the limbs and backbone.
form function
Form & Function
  • Body Temperature Control
    • Body hair helps mammals retain heat.
    • Higher metabolic rate helps mammal generate heat.
    • Fat helps conserve body heat.
    • Sweat glands help cool the body.
form function1
Form & Function
  • Feeding
    • Due to their high metabolic rate, mammals must eat nearly 10 times as much food as a reptile of the same size.
    • Include herbivores, omnivores, and carnivores.
    • Jaws and teeth are adapted to eat foods other than insects.
    • Have specialized teeth allowing food to be processed efficiently to obtain more energy.
form function3
Form & Function
  • Respiration
    • All mammals use lungs to breathe.
    • Blood is oxygenated in the lungs.
    • Breathing controlled by muscles and diaphragm that increase and decrease the volume of the lungs.
form function4
Form & Function
  • Circulation
    • 4-chambered heart
    • Right side of heart receive oxygen-poor blood (high in CO2) and then pumps it to the lungs.
    • After picking up oxygen in the lungs, blood enters the left side of the heart and then gets pumped out to the body.
form function5
Form & Function
  • Response
    • 3 Main Parts to the Brain:
      • Cerebrum – complicated behavior such as thinking
      • Cerebellum – controls muscular coordination
      • Medulla oblongata – regulates involuntary functions
    • Cerebrum contains an area called the cerebral cortex which is the center of thinking and other complex behavior.
    • Olfactory bulb – sense of smell.
    • Color vision most important to diurnal animals (active during daylight).
form function6
Form & Function
  • Chemical Controls
    • Endocrine glands to regulate body activities.
    • Release chemicals called hormones.
  • Fighting Disease
    • Immune system protects animals from disease.
form function7
Form & Function
  • Movement
    • Evolved a variety of adaptations aiding in movement.
      • Backbone that flexes both vertically and side to side.
      • Shoulder and pelvic girdles that are streamlined and flexible allowing limbs to move in a variety of ways.
form function8
Form & Function
  • Reproduction
    • Mammals give birth in 3 ways:
      • Placental mammals give birth to live young
      • Monotremes lay eggs
      • Marsupials bear live young that live in an external pouch

Ch 32.2

  • Class Mammalia contains about 4500 different species.
  • There are 19 different orders of mammals.
  • Mammals are divided into 3 groups based on their means of reproduction and development.
  • 3 Major Groups of Living Mammals:
    • Monotremes
    • Marsupials
    • Placentals
  • Monotremes are egg-laying mammals.
  • They share 2 characteristics with reptiles.
    • 1) Reproductive, Urinary, and Digestive Systems all open into the cloaca.
    • 2) They lay soft-shelled eggs that are incubated outside of the body.
  • They differ from reptiles in the fact that the young obtain nourishment from their mother’s milk.
  • There are only 3 species that exist today.
    • Duckbill Platypus
    • 2 Species of Spiny Anteaters or Echidnas
  • Echidna
    • Spines covering the top of the body
    • Long, sticky tongue to catch ants, worms, and other insects
    • Found only in Australia and New Guinea
  • Duckbill Platypus
    • Tail like a beaver
    • Body like an otter
    • Webbed feet and a bill like a bird
    • Lay eggs
    • Found in the deciduous forests of Australia
  • Marsupials give birth to live young that complete their development in an external pouch.
  • The embryo is born at a very early stage of development.
  • Once it is born it crawls across the mother’s fur and attaches to a nipple that is located in a pouch called the marsupium.
  • The embryo will spend several months inside the mother’s pouch until it can grow large enough to survive on its own.
  • There are 250 species of Marsupials.
  • They can be found in New Guinea, Australia, Tasmania, and the Americas.
  • The only marsupial found in North America is the opossum.
  • Marsupials include kangaroos, koalas, and wombats.
placental mammals
Placental Mammals
  • Placental mammals get their name from an internal structure called the placenta.
    • This is formed when the embryo’s tissues join with tissues from the mother’s body.
    • Allows for efficient exchange of nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and wastes between the mother and embryo.
placental mammals1
Placental Mammals
  • The embryo develops for a much longer time inside the mother.
    • Mice: a few weeks
    • Dogs: 2 months
    • Humans: 9 months
    • Elephants: 2 years
    • After birth, most placental mammals care for their young and provide them with nourishment by nursing.
placental mammals2
Placental Mammals
  • Order: Insectivora
    • Have long, narrow snouts
    • Sharp claws for digging
    • Insect eaters
    • Examples: Shrews, Hedgehogs, and Moles
placental mammals3
Placental Mammals
  • Order: Rodentia
    • Single pair of long, curved incisor teeth
    • Gnaw wood and other plant material
    • Examples: mice, rats, squirrels, beavers, chipmunks, porcupines, prairie dogs
placental mammals4
Placental Mammals
  • Order: Lagomorpha
    • Herbivores
    • Have hind legs adapted for leaping
    • Examples: rabbits, hares
placental mammals5
Placental Mammals
  • Order: Xenarthra
    • Simple or no teeth
    • Diet consists of insects
    • Adaptations include long tongue and claws for digging
    • Examples: sloth, anteaters, armadillos
placental mammals6
Placental Mammals
  • Order: Chiroptera
    • Winged mammals
    • Diet consists of mostly fruit and insects
    • Three species feed on the blood of other vertebrates
    • Examples: Bats
placental mammals7
Placental Mammals
  • Order: Cetacea
    • Adapted to underwater life
    • Must surface to breathe
    • Live and breed in the ocean
    • Examples: humpback whale, narwhal, sperm whale, beluga whale, river dolphins
placental mammals8
Placental Mammals
  • Order: Sirenia
    • Herbivores
    • Live in rivers, bays, and warm coastal waters
    • Fully aquatic
    • Examples: manatees, dugong
placental mammals9
Placental Mammals
  • Order: Carnivora
    • Most animals in this order eat meat
    • Some eat plants
    • Stalk or chase prey
    • Examples: dogs, foxes, bears, raccoons, walruses, cats
placental mammals10
Placental Mammals
  • Order: Carnivora
    • Family: Canidae (dogs, wolves, foxes)
    • Family: Felidae (cats)
    • Family: Mephitidae (skunk and stink badger)
    • Family: Mustelidae (badger, otter, weasel)
    • Family: Otariidae (seals and sea lions)
    • Family: Phocidae (earless seals)
    • Family: Procyonidae (raccoons)
    • Family: Ursidae (bears)
placental mammals11
Placental Mammals
  • Order: Perissodactyl
    • Hoofed animals with an ODD number of toes
    • Herbivores
    • Examples: horses, tapirs, rhinoceroses, zebras
placental mammals12
Placental Mammals
  • Order: Artiodactyls
    • Hoofed mammals with an EVEN number of toes
    • Large, grazing animals
    • Examples: cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, giraffe, ibex, hippo, camel, antelope, deer, gazelle
placental mammals13
Placental Mammals
  • Order: Probosciedea
    • Mammals with trunks
    • Only 2 species survive today
    • Examples: Asian Elephant, African Elephant
placental mammals14
Placental Mammals
  • Order: Primate
    • Have a highly developed cerebrum and complex behaviors
    • 200 Species
    • Examples: lemurs, tarsiers, apes, gibbons, macaques, humans