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Open access publishing and institutional repositories: an overview. Lucy A. Tedd Lecturer, Department of Information Studies, Aberystwyth University, Wales Editor: Program: Electronic library and information systems February 2009. What is open access (OA)?.
Lucy A. Tedd
Lecturer, Department of Information Studies, Aberystwyth University, Wales
Editor: Program: Electronic library and information systems
Many definitions – a report from the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK of 2006 stated:
“The World Wide Web has provided the means for researchers to make their research results available to anyone, anywhere, at any time. This applies to journal articles regardless of whether or not their library has a subscription to the journal in which the articles were published as well as to other types of research output such as conference papers, theses or research reports. This is known as Open Access.” (http://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/publications/pub_openaccess_v2.aspx)
1991 Subject-based repository of pre-prints in physics (arXiv),now 500,000+ entries at Cornell (http://arxiv.org)
1995 Stevan Harnad subversive proposal “in an ideal world of scholarly communication, all research should be freely available”
2001 Budapest Open Access Initiative
2003 Berlin declaration on open access to knowledge in science and humanities
An old tradition and a new technology have converged to make possible an unprecedented public good. The old tradition is the willingness of scientists and scholars to publish the fruits of their research in scholarly journals without payment, for the sake of inquiry and knowledge. The new technology is the internet. The public good they make possible is the world-wide electronic distribution of the peer-reviewed journal literature and completely free and unrestricted access to it by all scientists, scholars, teachers, students, and other curious minds. Removing access barriers to this literature will accelerate research, enrich education, share the learning of the rich with the poor and the poor with the rich, make this literature as useful as it can be, and lay the foundation for uniting humanity in a common intellectual conversation and quest for knowledge.
Gold OA - uses a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access e.g. Ariadne, D-Lib Magazine and First Monday
Green OA - authors publish papers in one of the 25,000 or so refereed journals in all disciplines and then self-archive these papers in open access repositories.
One conclusion of Oppenheim’s 2008 review:
“Libraries will increasingly switch to OA sources, leading to libraries gaining a more prominent role in scholarly publishing with activity in both the preservation and distribution of scholarly research. Libraries will need to move from being passive to active players in the scholarly communication chain.”
Oppenheim, Charles, Electronic scholarly publishing and open access. Journal of Information Science, 2008, 34(4), p.577-590.
Clifford Lynch, Executive Director, Coalition for Networked Information,
“In my view, a university-based institutional repository is a set of
services that a university offers to the members of
its community for the management and dissemination of digital
materials created by the institution and its community members. It is
most essentially an organizational commitment to the stewardship of
these digital materials, including long-term preservation where
appropriate, as well as organization and access or distribution.”
ARL: A Bimonthly Report, no. 226 (February 2003)
Institutional Repositories: Essential Infrastructure for Scholarship in the Digital Age http://www.arl.org/resources/pubs/br/br226/br226ir.shtml
1780 items (Feb. 2009)
Journal articles / e-theses / presentations
Recruitment of a repository manager in 2008
Advocacy of concept with the university
Aims to monitor overall growth in the number of eprint archives and to maintain a list of GNU EPrints sites
Available from Southampton University, UK
Data gathered automatically via OAI-PMH
ROAR also keeps track of the archiving policies of institutions.
31 universities/departments (including Southampton,
Glasgow and Stirling in the UK, Harvard and Stanford in the US, and
the National Institute of Technology, Rourkela in India and
Bharathidasan University) had adopted author mandates
34 research funding bodies (including all the UK Research Councils, the European Research Council and the US National Institutes of Health) that now operate similar mandates
Repository66 – a mash-up by Stuart Lewis of Aberystwyth based on OpenDOAR and ROAR (http://maps.repository66.org/)
World ranking of institutional repositories
JISC has provided much funding in this area.
2002-5 Focus on Access to Institutional Repositories - Theses Alive! Electronic Theses, ROMEO (Rights Metadata for Open Archiving) SHERPA (Securing a Hybrid Environment for Research Preservation and Access)
2005-7 Digital Repositories Programme - 20 specific projects e.g.openDOAR, EThoS, Repository Bridge
2006-9 Repository and Preservation Programme -supporting digital repositories and preservation, including cross-searching facilities across repositories; funding for institutions to develop a critical mass of content, preservation solutions and advice for the development of repositories” many separate projects (http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/reppres.aspx)
Consortium from SHERPA (Nottingham), ePints Team (Southampton), Bath(UKOLN) and Aberystwyth
2007-end March 2009
Funded by JISC - £1.4m
Aim “co-ordinate and deliver good practice and practical advice to English and Welsh higher education institutions to enable the implementation, management and development of digital institutional repositories”).
2004 – I attended a presentation at the National Library of Wales on some JISC FAIR projects
2006 – early supporter of CADAIR when it was being piloted as part of JISC-funded Repository Bridge project
2007-date – attempts to encourage academic colleagues to deposit materials in CADAIR – not always easy!
Some of the challenges
“ We can expect funders to continue to move towards requiring OA outputs from the recipients of their funding, and institutions to move steadily towards mandating OA. It will be an interesting time.”
Oppenheim, Charles, Electronic scholarly publishing and open access. Journal of Information Science, 2008, 34(4), p.577-590