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DEFINISI - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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DEFINISI. Rizab Perlombongan ( Mining reserves ) - batuan yang telah dikenalpasti boleh dilombong (berdasarkan kajian geologi). Rizab Pengilangan ( Milling reserves ) - batuan yang memasuki pengisar sebagai suapan Pencairan Lombong ( Mine Dilution )

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slide1

DEFINISI

Rizab Perlombongan (Mining reserves)

- batuan yang telah dikenalpasti boleh dilombong (berdasarkan kajian geologi)

Rizab Pengilangan (Milling reserves)

- batuan yang memasuki pengisar sebagai suapan

Pencairan Lombong (Mine Dilution)

- sebahagian suapan yang masuk ke dalam kilang yang tidak termasuk dalam mining reserves (terjadi semasa pembangunan operasi lombong)

slide2
Economics

- the study of the allocation of our limited resources to satisfy our unlimited wants and desires

  • Resources

- inputs ( land, human effort and skills, and machines and factories) used to produce good and services

  • Scarcity

- exists when human wants (material and nonmaterial) exceed available resources

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Peratusan Penyarian (Percentage Extraction)

- peratusan rizab yang dilombong yang melapor sebagai suapan

Perolehan Pengisar (Mill Recovery)

- bahagian berharga dalam suapan yang dapat diperolehi sebagai konsentrat

Net Mine Site Realization

- jumlah wang yang diterima oleh pelombong hasil dari jualan konsentrat setelah ditolak semua caj yang berkaitan dengan jualan konsentrat seperti caj peleburan, kastam, insuran pengangkutan dll

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Kos Kendalian Langsung (Direct Operating Cost)

  • kos berkaitan kepada pengeluaran yang dibenarkan oleh pihak pencukai dan diklasifikasi sebagai caj terhadap pengeluaran semasa operasi pengeluaran
  • Kos kendalian Tak-Langsung (In-Direct Operating Cost)
  • - kos yang tidak dikenakan dalam kos kendalian langsung yang dibenarkan oleh pihak pencukai. Cthnya Perbelanjaan Modal (Cost Expenditure)
  • kos ketua pejabat, cuti berbayar. Juga dikenali sebagai Operating Overhead
  • Perbelanjaan Modal (Cost Expenditure)
  • perbelanjaan yang dibenarkan oleh pihak pencukai yang dikumpulkan dan digunakan sebagai ofset terhadap liabiliti yang berkaitan dengan pendapatan. Cthnya kos loji dan peralatan
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Susut Nilai (Depreciation)

  • bahagian perbelanjaan modal yang dibenarkan oleh pihak pencukai untuk digunakan sebagai offset terhadap liabiliti yang berkaitan dengan pendapatan
  • Pemupusan (Depletion)
  • empirical allowance permitted by the taxing authority to be accumulated and used as an offsets against taxation liabilities associated with income.
  • Royalti (Royalty)
  • - payments, usually related to production, paid to a party accord with contractual commitment
slide6

Pendapatan Kena Cukai (Taxable Income)

  • equals net operating profit minus all allowable taxation allowances (i.e. depreciation and depletion plus other permitted deductions)
  • Aliran Tunai Bersih (Net Cash Flow)
  • - adalah aliran tunai kasar setelah ditolak segala pembayaran hutang, perbelanjaan modal, bagi memastikan operasi lombong terus berjalan. (Aliran tunai bersih ≠ Pendapatan bersih yang dilapor dalam penyata kewangan)
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Aliran Tunai Terdiskaun (Discounted Cash Flow)

  • the expression of individual net cash flows discounted in accord with a chosen time dependent discount sequence
  • commonly, annual net cash flows are discounted to a selected point in time in accord with a chosen equivalent compound discount criterion
  • -merupakan ukuran ke atas setiap pelaburan. Ia dinyatakan sebagai Kadar Pulangan Dalaman meliputi sepanjang hayat pelaburan
  • Nilai Kini Bersih (Net Present Value)
  • - the algebraic sum of the Discounted Net Cash Flows
macroeconomic microeconomic
Macroeconomic & Microeconomic
  • Macroeconomic

- the study of the whole economy including the topics of inflation, unemployment and economic growth

- deals with the aggregate (the total amount) or total economy

- it looks at economic problem as they influence the whole society

- topics include inflation, unemployment business cycle & economic growth

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Microeconomic

- deals with the smaller units with the economy, attempting to understand the decision making behaviour of firms and households and their interaction in markets

- the study of household and firm behaviour and how they interact in the marketplace

- topics include discussion heath care, agricultural subsidies, price of everyday items, such as running shoes ,distribution of income etc.