Democracy Develops in England • Late Middle Ages • 1066 William the Duke of Normandy invades England • The end of Feudalism • Centralized government • The dev of democracy • Henry II 1154-1159 • Introduced trial by jury • Common Law
Continued • Son Richard “Lion Heart” • Brother John • Unpopular-fought a costly war with France • John tried to raise taxes • This led to conflict between the English Nobles and the King • In 1215 they rebelled and forced John to grant guarantees
Magna Carta 1215 • 63 clauses • Ind. Rights and liberties • Due Process • Contract between the monarchy and nobles • Limited the power of the king • Later Clause 12 was interpreted to imply power for the King
The English Civil War & the Glorious Revolution • Preview: • Examine the image on the next slide. What do you think is going on? • What do you think led to the actions in this slide?
Reasons for the English Civil War • In 1603, Elizabeth died. She never married, so there were no heirs to continue the Tudor Dynasty • Mary Stuart’s son James I became the King of England— started Stuart Dynasty in England
Reasons for the English Civil War • Queen Elizabeth recognized the importance of working with Parliament • James I did not; believed he should be absolute monarch because of Divine Right (God chooses royal families to rule); James I did not listen to Parliament • Major problems between Parliament & King over issues of Authority, Money, & Religion
Problems between the King and Parliament • Authority—James I believed in divine right and absolutism; Parliament felt king should be limited by Parliament • Money—James I has to ask Parliament for money to finance government and life style
What is divine right? • King has power to rule from people. • King has the power to rule from Congress. • King has power to rule from Parliament. • King has power to rule from God.
Problems between the King and Parliament • Religion—Puritans were members of the Anglican Church who wanted all Catholic rituals removed; Puritans were active members of Parliament & were angered when James I arranged marriage of son (Charles) to a Catholic princess
Reasons for the English Civil War • When James I died in 1625, his son Charles I became king • Charles was “worse” than James: • Charles believed in divine right & absolute monarchy; refused to discuss ideas with Parliament—only called Parliament when he needed money
Reasons for the English Civil War • Parliament got fed up with Charles I & refused to give him money unless signed Petition of Rights in 1628: • King could not jail people without a good reason • King could not make taxes without Parliament's approval • King could not keep his soldiers in peoples’ homes & could not use army to maintain order during peacetime
Civil War • Charles I was really mad at Parliament & refused to call another Parliament for 11 years until he needed money to end revolts in Ireland & Scotland • Conflict between supporters of King (Royalists/Cavaliers) & Parliament grew so bad that a civil war was inevitable
Civil War • War between Cavaliers(Royalists)vs. Roundheads(supporters of Parliament) lasted for 5 years • Roundheads found a strong leader in Oliver Cromwell; Cromwell and Roundheads won & behead the king (1st public execution of a king)
Do you think that Charles I should have been executed? • Strongly agree • Somewhat agree • Somewhat disagree • Strongly disagree
What did the 19 Propositions say? • Gave the King supreme power. • Gave Parliament Supreme power. • Made the Commonwealth legal. • Gave Oliver Cromwell complete power.
After the Civil War • After the Civil War, a Commonwealth was created—type of government with no king & ruled by Parliament • Oliver Cromwell led the Commonwealth, but did not use democracy— he became a military dictator
New Commonwealth • Life in the Commonwealth was harsh because it was led by Cromwell & the Puritans; Forced strict religious rules on people of England: • It was illegal to go to theaters & sporting events; “merrymaking” & “amusement” were illegal • Citizens hated living this way & began to want to bring back a king again
King Charles is a bum! Let Parliament rule! English Civil War Graffiti Cavaliers stink!
Restoration • People grew tired of the severe, religious rule of Oliver Cromwell & the Puritans; many wanted a king again • In 1660, Charles I’s son became King of England—Charles II was called the “Merry Monarch” because he brought back theatres, sporting events, dancing & he got along with Parliament!!
Restoration • Charles II learned from the lessons of his father & grandfather: • Did not try to rule by Divine Right & did not threaten Parliament’s authority • Passed Habeas CorpusLaw—everyone guaranteed a trial after arrest; cannot be held in jail forever • Anglicanism was official religion, but treated Puritans & Catholics equally
Restoration • During the Restoration, Parliament strengthened the Church of England—only Anglicans could attend universities, serve in Parliament, be priests in Anglican Church • Parliament created Constitutional Monarchy based on Magna Carta & Petition of Right (Guaranteed rights of people & limited king)
Restoration • BUT, there were problems: • Charles II needed more money than Parliament was willing to give; so he made a secretagreement with Louis XIV of France to convert to Catholicism in exchange for money • Charles II had no children; when he died, his openly-Catholic brother James II will be king (Parliament's worst fear!!)
Glorious Revolution • James ignoring Parliament’s religious laws, James appointed Catholics to government and university positions. • Parliament was worried the throne would go to James II son who was to be raised Catholic. • Encouraged William of Orange (ruler of the Netherlands who was married to James II daughter Mary) to invade and take over.
Glorious Revolution (Cont) • James II fled to France when he realized he had little support from England. • This peaceful transfer of power was called the Glorious Revolution.
William and Mary • William and Mary swore an oath that they would govern the people of England. • Parliament passed the Bill of Rights. • This passage made it clear that Parliament was in control. • Establishment of a Constitutional Monarchy
What is a commonwealth? • A state ruled by the monarch. • A state ruled by a hegemony. • A state ruled by a constitution. • A state ruled by elected representatives.
What is a constitutional monarchy? • Form of government in which monarch’s power is limited by the constitution. • Form of government in which monarch’s power is unlimited by the constitution. • Form of government where Parliament is in control. • Form of government where Parliament is not in control.
What is habeas corpus? • People have to be tried. • People cannot be held in prison w/o just cause or w/o a trial. • People need to be read their Miranda rights. • People have to have an attorney present at trial.