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AGLANU MAWULI LESLIE AND DIVINE ODAME APPIAH DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT, KWAME NKRUMAH UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, KUMASI GHANA GEOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION CONFERENCE 2012 KWAME NKRUMAH UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, KUMASI 1ST TO 4TH August, 2012 THE KORLE LAGOON IN DISTRESS; THE STRESS OF URBAN SOLID WASTE IN ACCRA, GHANA.
Introduction The stress of urban solid waste Profile of study area Methodology Results and discussions Conclusion Recommendation Presentation outline
The rapid urbanization in coastal areas particularly in Accra have far exceeded the capacity of metropolitan authorities to cope with its attendant environmental stress. It is estimated that throughout the country only about 10% of solid wastes generated are properly disposed-off annually. Introduction
The catchment of Korle lagoon has been associated high population density with intensive land use (Kakari et al 2006). The increase in uncontrolled and unplanned urbanization has resulted to the indiscriminate disposal of solid waste. (Porter et al., 1997: 9; Chazan, 2002: 1; Wetherall, 2003: 1). The recent proliferation of plastic bags for packaging have seriously aggravated the negative impact of solid waste menace. The stress of urban solid waste
The Lagoon is heavily silted, the outlet is often blocked and the water fails to flow into the sea fast enough to avoid becoming stagnant (Boadi and Kuitunene, 2002). The shallowness and grossly polluted state of the lagoon has rendered it unsuitable for economic activities since the 1960’s (Biney and Amuzu, 1995; Abraham et al., 2006). In 1995 the International Development Research Center referred to it as “one of the most polluted places on earth” The stress of urban solid waste cont.
Quantitative and qualitative research method both field and secondary data were used. • Sampling Design: A simple random sampling technique was used to select 124 respondents from a population of 962,183 (GSS, 2000) using a sample size formula by (Gomez and John, 2010) • Survey mechanism: • Partially Pre-Coded Questionnaire, • Key Informants Interviews with WMD & AMA • Laboratory analysis of water samples for: TSS, TDS, DO, pH, Eutrophic levels and Heavy metals etc, Methodology
Theoretical Model of the Study Adapted and modified from Barder, 2012
Ghana generates about 4.5 million metric tons of solid waste annually but only about 10% of it is properly disposed-off (Mensah, 2005). Statistics provided by the EPA in 2000, showed that the AMA, was only able to collect about 55% of solid waste generated within the city (EPA, 2000). Accra generates 2,500 tonnes of solid waste per day but only 1,500 tonnes are collected at community waste collection points (WMD, 2012) Resultsand Discussion
About 60 percent of AMA live in the catchment of the Korle Lagoon (Abraham et al., 2006). About 76.6% and 55.5% of the population in the catchment of the Korle lagoon generates sachets/plastics and organic matter respectively daily. 34.7% use public waste collection containers 65.3% uses “bola men” and open dump sites Use of “bola men” for daily disposal Results and discussion cont.
Solid waste disposal at pubic places 14% in public litter bins 30% by littering 56% dispose-off their solid waste in drains/gutters Results and discussion cont.
High Population pressure and negative attitude towards the environment • Poormaintenance culture • Waste management companies have mainly been engaged in collection and semi-controlled dumping. • Lack of funds and the difficulty in acquiring land for disposal Conclusions
Promotion of the use of paper bags as well as public education by the AMA and the EPA • The government in collaboration with the waste management companies should provide adequate public waste facilities and ensure frequent collection and proper disposal • Capable companies should empower by the government to create ready markets for recyclable solid wastes • Government should contract competent companies to carry out frequent dredging of the lagoon Recommendations
FOOD FOR THOUGHT: Will Accra without filth be a reality or a mirage and will the Korle lagoon still be called a lagoon in the next decade ? THANK YOU FOR YOUR AUDIENCE