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Muscular System. Function Locomotion Posture Protection Heat production. Muscle Classification. Skeletal Muscle Attached to skeleton Striated Muscle fiber = Muscle cell Multinucleate Myofibrils are striated cylinders within myofiber. Skeletal Muscle.

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muscular system
Muscular System
  • Function
    • Locomotion
    • Posture
    • Protection
    • Heat production
muscle classification
Muscle Classification
  • Skeletal Muscle
    • Attached to skeleton
    • Striated
    • Muscle fiber = Muscle cell
      • Multinucleate
      • Myofibrils are striated cylinders within myofiber
skeletal muscle
Skeletal Muscle
  • Myofilaments are proteins within the myofibrils that result in contraction
    • Actin – thin & has a receptor site for myosin
    • Myosin – thick & has a receptor site for actin and ATP
    • Contraction – Myosin heads attach to actin and with ATP perform a Power Stroke
skeletal muscle1
Skeletal Muscle
  • Sarcomere
  • The distance from Z line to Z line
  • The basic unit of contraction
  • Sarcomere gets smaller as Power Stroke occurs
key points
Key Points
  • Why is the sarcomere the functional unit of contraction?
  • Why does the power stroke result in contraction?
  • What would happen to contraction if you ran out of ATP?
motor neurons
Motor Neurons
  • Skeletal muscle cannot contract without stimulation from a motor neuron
  • Motor Unit = The motor neuron plus the myofiber(s) it innervates
key points1
Key Points
  • Why would a spinal cord injury result in paralysis?
somatic muscles
Somatic Muscles
  • All of the body’s skeletal muscles except the branchiomeric muscles
  • Voluntary
  • Body wall & Appendage muscles
    • Trunk and Tail
    • Hypobranchial
    • Tongue
    • Extrinsic Eyeball
somatic muscles1
Somatic Muscles
  • Myotome derivatives primarily
  • Some from hypomere
key points2
Key Points
  • What is a myotome?
somatic muscles2
Somatic Muscles
  • Orient the body in the environment
somatic muscles3
Somatic Muscles
  • Red Fibers
    • More blood supply for aerobic metabolism
    • Myoglobin for oxygen storage
    • Fatigue resistant
    • Fish for cruising long distances, tetrapods for posture
somatic muscles4
Somatic Muscles
  • White fibers
    • Less blood supply; geared for anaerobic metabolism
    • Fatiguable
    • Fish for spurts of swimming
    • Tetrapods for sprints
key points3
Key Points
  • Why is the breast meat of the goose dark, but the breast meat of the chicken is white?
cardiac muscle
Cardiac Muscle
  • Striated with intercalated disks
  • Involuntary
  • Lateral plate mesoderm (hypomere) in origin
smooth muscle
Smooth Muscle
  • Involuntary
  • Lateral plate mesoderm in origin
  • Regulates internal environment
  • Innervated by Autonomic Nervous System
  • Found in the wall of tubes and hollow organs
  • Intrinsic Eye muscles
  • Erectors of feathers and hairs
key points4
Key Points
  • Besides those mentioned, give a specific example of where might you find smooth muscle?
gross features of skeletal muscle
Gross features of skeletal muscle
  • Origin, insertion
  • Tendon
  • Aponeurosis
  • Fascia
skeletal muscle actions
Skeletal Muscle Actions
  • Flex/Extend
  • Adduct/Abduct
  • Levator/Depressor
  • Protract/Retract
  • Constrictor/Dilator
  • Rotator
skeletal muscle actions1
Skeletal Muscle Actions
  • Supinator/Pronator
  • Tensor (taut)
skeletal muscle actions2
Skeletal Muscle Actions
  • Agonist – primary mover
  • Antagonist – opposes primary mover
  • Synergist – helps primary mover
development phylogeny
Development & Phylogeny
  • Position
  • Embryology
  • Nerve supply
development
Development
  • Dorsal Mesoderm – Epimere – Somite
    • Myotome
    • Sclerotome & Dermatome
  • Lateral plate Mesoderm – Hypomere
    • Somatic – body wall muscles
    • Splanchnic – smooth muscle of viscera
axial muscles
AXIAL MUSCLES
  • Trunk
  • Tail
  • Hypobranchial
  • Tongue
  • Extrinsic Eye
axial muscles1
Axial Muscles
  • Metamerism as in myomeres
axial muscles2
Axial Muscles
  • Agnathans
  • Simple
  • Segments (myomeres)
  • Myotome derivatives
axial muscles jawed fish
Axial Muscles – Jawed Fish
  • Horizontal or Lateral Septum
  • Epaxial Muscles
    • From myotomes in embryology
    • Innervated from dorsal rami of spinal nerves
    • Extend spine & some lateral bending
    • Extrinsic eye muscles (innervated by cranial nerves)
    • Epibranchial muscles
axial muscles jawed fish1
Axial Muscles – Jawed Fish
  • Hypaxial Muscles
  • From Myotomes
    • Innervated by ventral rami of spinal nerves
    • Ventroflex and lateral bending
hypaxial muscles jawed fish
Hypaxial Muscles – Jawed fish
  • Hypobranchial muscles
  • Located on floor of pharynx, pectoral girdle to jaw
  • Are hypaxial muscles that migrated forward
  • Function in respiration & feeding
  • E.g. Coracomandibularis, Coracohyoid
axial muscles tetrapods
Axial Muscles - Tetrapods
  • Epaxial trunk muscles
  • Dorsal muscles from skull to tail
  • Dorsalis trunci in amphibians
  • Longissimus – long dominant spine extensor in amniotes
  • Iliocostalis – most lateral epaxial spine muscle important in reptiles
epaxial muscles
Epaxial Muscles
  • See Vertebrate Muscles page
epaxial muscles in tetrapods
Epaxial Muscles in Tetrapods
  • Trends
  • Decreased except in neck
  • Fewer myosepta
axial muscles tetrapods1
Axial Muscles - Tetrapods
  • Hypaxial Muscles
  • Tend to form sling-like sheets
  • Lateral muscles support & compress body wall
  • Obliques
  • Transversus
  • Intercostals in amniotes only
hypaxial muscles tetrapods
Hypaxial Muscles - Tetrapods
  • Rectus abdominis – ventroflexes and compresses abdomen
  • Diaphragm – unique to mammals for breathing
hypaxial muscles in tetrapods
Hypaxial Muscles in tetrapods
  • See Vertebrate Muscles page
hypobranchial and tongue muscles tetrapods
Hypobranchial and Tongue Muscles - tetrapods
  • Function – stabilizes hyoid and larynx
  • E.g. geniohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid
hypobranchial tongue muscles in tetrapods
Hypobranchial & Tongue muscles in tetrapods
  • Tongue muscles
  • Lingu-; Gloss-
  • Anchors to hyoid
  • E.g. lingualis, styloglossus
extrinsic eye muscles in tetrapods
Extrinsic Eye muscles in tetrapods
  • Voluntary
  • Obliques – rotates eye along its transverse axis
  • Rectus – up, down, left, right
  • Retractor in some
extrinsic eye muscles
Extrinsic Eye muscles
  • See Vertebrate Muscles Page