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______________________. EVERY MARINE A RIFLEMAN U SMC RIFLE MARKSMANSHIP 1903-2013. MARINE GUNNER C.P . WADE WTBN, QUANTICO, VIRGINIA. Historical Context. “ Every Marine is, first and foremost, a Rifleman . All other conditions are secondary.” -General A.M. Gray, Jr., USMC.

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    1. ______________________ EVERY MARINE A RIFLEMAN USMC RIFLE MARKSMANSHIP 1903-2013 MARINE GUNNER C.P. WADE WTBN, QUANTICO, VIRGINIA

    2. Historical Context • “Every Marine is, first and foremost, a Rifleman. All other conditions are secondary.” -General A.M. Gray, Jr., USMC. • “The deadliest weapon in the world is a Marine and his rifle.” -General John “Blackjack” Pershing, US Army. • “Do not attack the First Marine Division. Leave the yellow-legs alone. Strike the American Army.” --Orders to Communist enemy forces in Korea. (The 1st MAR DIV subsequently discontinued the use of khaki leggings).

    3. Purpose • To educate leaders on the history of USMC rifle marksmanship in order to improve their ability to conduct analysis and refinement of the current USMC rifle program and the USMC Infantry Rifle. • To educate Marines on USMC history and heritage to foster espirit de corps.

    4. Agenda • History of the USMC Service Rifles and Carbines (1903-2013). • Combat history of USMC Service Rifles and Carbines. • History of the USMC rifle qualification programs (1903-2013). • 110 years of history of USMC rifle qualification targets. • Concepts for consideration. US Marine Corps Winchester Lee-Navy M1895 Service Rifle NOTE: This Service Rifle used up until the time period of this study. It is also depicted on the USMC Good Conduct Medal.

    5. US Marine Corps Service RifleCurrent USMC Infantry Rifle • United States Carbine, 5.56mm, M4. • Adopted as the standard US Marine Corps Infantry Rifle in 2013. • (2012) $1329.00 for base Carbine. • $969.00 for Rifle Combat Optic (RCO). • $120.00 for RCO mount. • $143.68 for Back-Up Iron sight. • $1338.00 for AN/PEQ-16A device. • $9.21 per magazine (x7)= $64.47. • $67.92 for sling. • $71.33 for ambidextrous fire control. • $41.81 for bayonet. • $81.81 for cleaning gear. • $97.39 for enhanced charging handle. • TOTAL COST FOR M4 INFANTRY RIFLE IN 2012: $4,354.41 • TOTAL COST FOR M1903A1 & SLING IN 1941: $49.55 • What cost $49.55 in 1941 would cost $639.19 today.

    6. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1903/A1. • Adopted in 1903. Primary Service Rifle until 1944. Fully replaced by M1 Rifle in 1947. • Replaced the Krag-Jorgensen, Lee 1895, and the M1885 Remington-Lee rifles. • 1906: Projectile redesigned into “spitzer” bullet. • Stock redesigned on M1903A1 (1929-1939). • Caliber: .30-’06 Springfield (“Thirty-aught-Six”). Rifle often called “Aught Three”. • Based on the MauserGewehr 98 rifle. • Clip-loaded, bolt action, 5-round internal magazine. • Capable of firing rifle grenades. M1903A1 1941 cost: $48.58 + 97 cents for sling.

    7. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1903/A1. US Marine Corps Expert Rifle Badge—1920’s (with unauthorized USMC Emblem). US Marines at Belleau Wood, France 1918

    8. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1903A3. • Caliber: .30-’06 Springfield (“Thirty-aught-Six”). • Based on the original Springfield 1903 rifle. • Clip-loaded, bolt action, 5-round internal magazine. • Redesigned in ~1942 for greater ease of manufacture: • Rear sight converted to aperture on rear of receiver. • Rifle butt stock altered. • Some metal parts stamped vs. milled.

    9. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1903/A3. ‘03 Rifle Grenades US Marines on Guadalcanal 1942

    10. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1903/A1/A3. US Marine Corps Color Guard Washington D.C. – present day.

    11. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1. • Called “M1 Service Rifle” or “M1 Rifle” by USMC; not “Garand”. • Capable of firing rifle grenades. • Ordered by USMC in 1941—began fielding in 1942, standard by 1947. • Semi-auto, gas operated, Enbloc clip-fed, 8 rd capacity. • Caliber .30-’06 M2 selected as standard Ball ammunition. • Some in the USMC advocated against adopting a semi-auto rifle, for fear of marksmanship degradation. NOTE: This rifle is depicted on the USMC Expert Rifle qualification badge and on the rank insignia of Lance Corporal through Master Sergeant.

    12. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1. M1 Firing Rifle Grenade Sergeant Dakota Meyer, USMC. The USMC Enlisted chevron has a representation of two crossed M1 Service Rifles.

    13. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1. US Marines in Korea 1950 US Marines at Iwo Jima 1945

    14. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1. US Marines in Beirut, Lebanon (the 1st time 1958)

    15. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1. US Marine Corps Silent Drill Platoon present day

    16. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Carbine, Caliber .30, M1, M1A1. • Issued to select Marines in lieu of sidearm. • .30 Carbine cartridge. • Developed into M2 (select fire) and M3 (night vision) versions. • Fired only to 300 yards/meters for Annual Rifle Training.

    17. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Carbine, Caliber .30, M1, M1A1. US Marines at Okinawa 1945 US Marines in North Korea 1950

    18. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, 7.62mm, M14. • Adopted by USMC in 1960. • 7.62 x 51mm, semi-auto (or select when modified), gas operated, magazine-fed (20 rd). • Highly modified M1 Service Rifle. • Intended to replace multiple weapons in US Army and USMC inventory. NOTE: Springfield Armory, Massachusetts was closed in 1968.

    19. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, 7.62mm, M14. The M14 had the capability of fitting an M76 GL attachment, but the M79 GL was issued. US Marine in Vietnam 1965

    20. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, 7.62mm, M14. US Marine color guard— unknown unit, present day

    21. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, 5.56mm, M16A1. • Adopted in 1967 and sent straight to Vietnam. • Result from Project Salvo. • Semi-auto and automatic modes. • Capable of mounting optic devices in Carrying Handle. • Grenade fires by way of attached launcher (M203). • USMC developed training program after rifle had been fielded to combat.

    22. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, 5.56mm, M16A1. US Marines in Beirut, Lebanon (the 2nd time 1983) US Marines in Vietnam 1968

    23. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, 5.56mm, M16A2. • Designed by US Marine Corps (WTBn Quantico (Rifle Team) and MCDEC) as the M16A1E1from 1980-1983. • Adopted (FIRST) by the USMC in 1984. This is the only time in 110 years when the USMC preceded the US Army in a Service Rifle development and acquisition. • Adopted by US Army in late-80’s (read ARI research note 86-19). • Semi-auto and 3 round burst mode. • Capable of mounting optic devices in Carrying Handle. • Grenade fires by way of attached launcher (M203).

    24. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, 5.56mm, M16A2. US Marines in Panama 1989 US Marines in Kuwait 1991

    25. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, 5.56mm, M16A2. US Marines in Somalia 1993 US Marines in Liberia 1996

    26. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, 5.56mm, M16A2. US Marines in Iraq 2003 US Marines in Afghanistan 2001

    27. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, 5.56mm, M16A4. • Developed from US Army requirement for “Modular Weapon System” in 1994 to facilitate mounting of modular attachments. • Continued use of semi-auto and burst modes.

    28. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, 5.56mm, M16A4. • Decision to remove from the USMC Infantry battalions made in 2013. • USMC full-fielding of Rifle Combat Optic (for every rifle and carbine achieved in 2013. • Iron sights are attached as a “back-up” to the RCO.

    29. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Rifle, 5.56mm, M16A4. US Marines in Iraq 2004 US Marines in Afghanistan 2012

    30. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Carbine, 5.56mm, M4 • First issued to select personnel in lieu of a sidearm in 1999. • Large additional procurement in 2004 and 2007. • Selected as standard USMC Infantry Service Rifle in 2013. • Approximately 86,000 in 2013 USMC service.

    31. US Marine Corps Service Rifle • United States Carbine, 5.56mm, M4 US Marines in Iraq 2004 US Marines in Afghanistan 2012

    32. 110 Years of the USMC Service Rifle USMC 1942 1971 1960 2013 1999 1984 1903 M4 M16A4 M16A4 M4 M16A2 M14 RIFLE M1903 M1 RIFLE M16A1 US Army 1967 1993 1936 1957 1988 M1903 M1 RIFLE M16A2 M14 RIFLE M16A1 M4 M16A4 M4A1 1917 NOTE: The end dates of some Service Rifles are approximate due to relegation to Reserve and ceremonial service.

    33. ______________________ US Marine Corps Courses of Fire

    34. US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1912-1942 Annual Rifle Entry Level 1943-1955 Annual Rifle Entry Level 1955-1968 Annual Rifle “A” Course 1968-1971 Annual Rifle “C” Course 1971-1986 ART & ELT “A” Course 1955-1971 Entry Level Rifle 2007-2008 Annual Rifle Table 1A+2 Iron Sight 2007-20?? Annual Rifle Table 1A+2 Optical Sight 1993-2007 Annual Rifle S.L.R. 1986-1993 ART & ELT “A” Course NOTE: The USMC has always endorsed a program for ELT and a time-condensed program for ART. 2007-2012 Entry Level Table 1+2 Iron Sight 2012-20?? Entry Level Table 1+2 Optical Sight 1993-2007 Entry Level “A” Course

    35. US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1912-1942 • 1912-1942 • Three courses of fire: • Army Marksmans’ • Sharpshooters’ • Expert Rifleman’s

    36. US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1912-1942 • 1912-1942 • Marines would fire one of the several courses dependent on billet and time. • Recruits and Annual shooters fired different courses. • Common use of shooting jackets, slings, sight-blackening, etc. • Marines who had demonstrated previous high qualifications fired an abbreviated training program. • Use of .22 caliber training rifles was routine prior to scored fire.

    37. US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1912-1942 • Army Marksmans’ Course 1912-1942

    38. US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1912-1942 • Sharpshooters’ Course 1912-1942

    39. US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1912-1942 • Expert Rifleman’s Course 1912-1942

    40. US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1912-1942 • Expert Rifleman’s Course 1912-1942

    41. US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1912-1942 • Navy Marksman’s Course 1912-1942

    42. US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1947-1955 1943-1955 ‘A’ Course of Fire Drill Time (min) Distance (yards)Target Rounds Position Sling Stage One Slow Fire NA 200 “Able” 4 Standing Hasty Stage Two Slow Fire NA 200 “Able” 4 Sitting Loop or Hasty Stage Three Slow Fire NA 200 “Able” 4 Kneeling Loop or Hasty Stage Four Slow Fire NA 500 “Baker” 8 Prone Loop Stage Five Rapid Fire 60 sec 200 “Dog” 16 Standing to Sitting Loop or Hasty Stage Six Rapid Fire 60 sec 200 “Dog” 16 Standing to Kneeling Loop or Hasty Stage Seven Rapid Fire 60 sec 300 “Dog” 16 Standing to Prone Loop or Hasty Total Rounds 68 The qualification scores for each marksmanship category were: • Expert – 306 • Sharpshooter – 292 • Marksman – 268

    43. US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1955-1968(Note that Entry Level shooters fired this course until 1971) 1955-1968 ‘A’ Course of Fire Drill Time (min) Distance (yards)Target Rounds Position Sling Stage One Slow Fire 12 200 “Able” 10 Standing Hasty or Parade Stage Two Slow Fire 6300 “Able” 5 Sitting Loop Stage Three Slow Fire6 300 “Able” 5 Kneeling Loop Stage Four Slow Fire12 500 “Baker” 10 Prone Loop Stage Five Rapid Fire 50 sec 200 “Dog” 10 (2+8 for M1) Standing to Sitting Loop Stage Six Rapid Fire 50 sec 300 “Dog” 10 (2+8 for M1) Standing to Prone Loop Total Rounds 50 The qualification scores for each marksmanship category were: • Expert – 220 • Sharpshooter – 210 • Marksman – 190

    44. US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1968-1971 1968-1971 ‘C’ Course of Fire for Annual Rifle Qualification Drill Time Distance(yards) Target Rounds Position Sling Stage One Timed Fire 120 sec 200 Short/Midrange 10 Standing Hasty or Parade Stage Two Timed Fire 120 sec 200 Short/Midrange 10 Kneeling Loop Stage Three Rapid Fire 40 sec 200 Short/Midrange 10 Sitting Loop Stage Four Rapid Fire 60 sec 300 Short/Midrange 20 Prone Loop Stage Five Rapid Fire 180 sec 500 Long-range 10 Prone Loop Total Rounds

    45. US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1971-1986Entry Level and Annual Rifle Training Drill Time (min) Distance (yards) Target Rounds Position Sling Stage One Slow Fire 5 200 “A‟ 5 Sitting Loop Stage Two Slow Fire 5 200 “A‟ 5 Kneeling Loop Stage Three Slow Fire 5 200 “A‟ 5 Standing Parade Stage Four Rapid Fire 60 sec 200 “D‟ 10 Standing Loop to Sitting Stage Five Slow Fire 5 300 “A‟ 5 Sitting Loop Stage Six Rapid Fire 60 sec 300 “D‟ 10 Standing to Prone Loop Stage Seven Slow Fire 10 500 “B‟-MOD 10 Prone Loop Total Rounds 50 Expert: 220 Sharpshooter: 210 Marksman: 190

    46. US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1986-1993Entry Level and Annual Rifle Training Drill Time (min) Distance (yards) Target Rounds Position Sling Stage One Slow Fire 20 200 “A‟ 5 Sitting Loop Stage Two Slow Fire 20 200 “A‟ 5 Kneeling Loop Stage Three Slow Fire 20 200 “A‟ 5 Standing Parade Stage Four Rapid Fire 60 sec 200 “D‟ 10 Standing to Sitting or Kneeling Loop Stage Five Slow Fire 5 300 “A‟ 5 Sitting or Kneeling Loop Stage Six Rapid Fire 60 sec 300 “D‟ 10 Standing to Prone Loop Stage Seven Slow Fire 10 500 “B‟-MOD 10 Prone Loop Total Rounds 50 Expert: 220 Sharpshooter: 210 Marksman: 190

    47. US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1986-1993Entry Level and Annual Rifle Training • Aspects of this particular course of fire: • Shooters were not permitted to fill magazines for Slow Fire. An Empty magazine was inserted, then one cartridge [at a time] was inserted into the Upper Receiver, and the Bolt Release operated to chamber each round. • Shooters raised their hands for a Coach’s assistance when encountering stoppages. • A Speed Reload occurred during the Rapid Fire events, reloaded by the “strong hand”. • Weapons Conditions had not yet been created. • A Flag Safety was employed at all times when not actually firing. • Weapons Safety Rules had not yet been created. • Lessons-learned from the 1990-1991 Gulf War caused major weapons handling revisions to USMC rifle training and qualification.

    48. US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1993-2007(Entry Level Rifle Training) Drill Time (min) Distance (yards) Target Rounds Position Sling Stage One Slow Fire 20 200 “A‟ 5 Sitting Loop Stage Two Slow Fire 20 200 “A‟ 5 Kneeling Loop Stage Three Slow Fire 20 200 “A‟ 5 Standing Parade Stage Four Rapid Fire 60 sec 200 “D‟ 10 Standing to Sitting Loop Stage Five Slow Fire 5 300 “A‟ 5 Sitting Loop Stage Six Rapid Fire 60 sec 300 “D‟ 10 Standing to Prone Loop Stage Seven Slow Fire 10 500 “B‟-MOD 10 Prone Loop Total Rounds 50 Expert: 220 Sharpshooter: 210 Marksman: 190

    49. US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1993-2007(Sustainment Level Rifle) 1994-2005 Course of Fire (Sustainment Level Rifle Training) Expert: 40 Sharpshooter: 35 Marksman: 25

    50. US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1993-2007(Sustainment Level Rifle) Note: Here is an excerpt from a Marine’s May 2001 SLR Qualification Day: