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General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 8e. Bettelheim, Brown Campbell, & Farrell. Introduction to Chemistry 32B Spring 2009. CHAPTER 30 NUTRITION. Nutrition. Nutrients: the components of food and drink that provide growth, replacement, and energy:. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids

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general organic and biochemistry 8e
General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 8e

Bettelheim, Brown

Campbell, & Farrell

  • Nutrients: the components of food and drink that provide growth, replacement, and energy:
  • Carbohydrates
  • 2. Lipids
  • 3. Proteins
  • 4. Vitamins
  • 5. Minerals
  • 6. Water
  • Digestion: the hydrolysis of starches, fats, and proteins into smaller units that can be absorbed and metabolized.

The Food Guide Pyramid






~2000 calories/day for sedentary

  • Nutritional calorie (Cal): 1000 cal or 1 kcal.
  • Basal caloric requirement: the energy requirement for a resting body.
  • ~2900 calories/day for ACTIVE
carbohydrates 4 kcal g
Carbohydrates: 4 kcal/g
  • Carbohydrates are the main source of energy in a diet; the main dietary carbohydrates are:
    • The polysaccharide starch.
    • The disaccharides lactose and sucrose.
    • The monosaccharides glucose and fructose.


  • Digestion of carbohydrates starts in the mouth:
    • a-Amylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of a-1,4-glycosidic bonds of starch and glycogen.
artificial sweeteners sweet taste no calories
Artificial sweetenerssweet taste~ no calories . ..
  • 450Xs sweeter
  • then Sucrose
  • 100-150Xs sweeter
  • then Sucrose
proteins 4 kcal g
Proteins: 4 kcal/g
  • Dietary proteins can be used for energy,
  • main use  amino acids:

body can synthesize its own proteins.

    • Digestion of proteins -- cooking, denatures
    • Proteins: HCl stomach hydrolyzes.
    • Most protein digestion occurs in the small intestine.
    • complete protein: A dietary protein that contains all essential amino acids. Casein (milk)
  • Figure 30.4 Different enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide chains at different specific sites.
proteins not all complete
Proteins: not all = complete
  • Gelatin, which is denatured collagen, is an incomplete protein because it lacks Trp, and is low in Ile and Met.
  • Corn protein is low in Lys and Trp.
  • Rice is low in Lys and Thr.
  • Wheat protein is low in Lys.
  • Legumes are low in Met and Cys.
  • Soy protein is very low in Met.



  • Protein complementation: diet of two or more proteins complement each other’s deficiencies; for example:
  • Vegetarians:
    • Rice + tofu (Japan, China)
    • 2. Corn tortilla + beans (Central S. America)
    • 3. Lentils + rice (India)
fats 9 kcal g
Fats: 9 kcal/g
  • Fats are the most concentrated source of energy.
    • Lipases, enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of lipids,
    • Bile salts, (in liver), emulsify water-insoluble dietary fats  acted upon by lipases.

Which fat is

unsaturated? And why?

Which is solid at room temp?

Which is liq at room temp?

vitamins and minerals
Vitamins and Minerals
  • Fat-Soluble vitamins (Non Polar)
vitamins and minerals1
Vitamins and Minerals
  • Water-Soluble Vitamins (Polar)

FOOD for Performance Enhancement

Anthony Almada, BSc, MSc

Cofounder and former CSO

EAS, Pioneering Research

on Creatine

summary chapter 30 nutrition
SUMMARY Chapter 30-Nutrition
  • 1. 6 groups of nutrients: (Carbs, Fats, Protein, Vitamins, Minerals, water)
  • 2. Carbohydrates: major source of E in diet
  • 3. Fats (lipids): have most concentrated Energy: 9 kcal/g
  • 4. Protein: degraded by body to A.A.  specific proteins
  • 5. Deficiency in Vit./minerals nutritional diseases:
          • (Vit A – bad night vision)
          • (Vit C –scurvy)
          • Vegetarians (B vitamins, folic acid) – anemia
  • CHECK OUT NUTRITION CLASS (F.C.S.19-Nutrition), Sharon Antonelli
goal of today


Tri-glycerides (fats)

Vitamin A

  • Expose to basics or organic molecular structure:

Amino acids


Introduction to Chemistry 32B - Spring 2009


Week of Page No. in Text Chapter, WS, & Lab Topics

(Wed) 1/28 70-83 3 Chemical bonds (Review)

269-282 10 Organic Chemistry

Updated Syllabus

Text: General, Organic and Biochemistry, Bettelheim, Brown and March, 7th ed. 2004,