18 th century social and economic change
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18 th Century Social and Economic Change. The Dawn of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions. Economic and demographic changes. 1700, 80% of western Europeans were farmers; higher % in eastern Europe Most people lived in poverty.

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18 th century social and economic change

18th Century Social and Economic Change

The Dawn of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions.

economic and demographic changes
Economic and demographic changes
  • 1700, 80% of western Europeans were farmers; higher % in eastern Europe
  • Most people lived in poverty.
  • Significant population growth until 1650; slows down until 1750 when it starts to dramatically rise again.
population explosion after 1750
Population Explosion after 1750
  • Limits to population growth before 1700: - famine, disease, war
  • Reasons for population growth:
    • disappearance of plague
    • improved sanitation,
    • improved transportation for food distribution (canal and road building in western Europe),
    • increased food supply (esp. potato).
falling death rates
Falling Death Rates
  • With the exception of England, birth rates did not significantly rise, but death rates fell.
  • A better nourished population (due to better weather, better agricultural practices, and better transport) led to people living longer.
impact of profit inflation
Impact of Profit Inflation
  • Inflation due to rising population and increased demand.
  • “Profit inflation” stimulated economic growth.
  • By the end of the 18th century, prices outperform wages, leading to hardship for the poor, particularly in France.
  • Wealth moved more and more from the poor to the wealthy due to high rents and low wages
  • Regressive tax structure that put the burden on the poor in France and much of the continent caused hardship and led to financial crises.
  • Cottage Industries: first and foremost a family enterprise (also called “putting-out” system)

- Occurred during Agricultural Revolution

  • Putting-out system: city manufacturers took advantage of cheaper labor in the countryside
    • increased rural population eager to supplement agricultural income.
    • began to challenge urban craft industry
economic innovation
Economic Innovation
  • Changes in Structure and Performance:
    • Performance – measured by output; generally identified through per capita productivity.
    • Structure – characteristics that support performance (laws, tax policies, technology, population, etc.)
adam smith
Adam Smith
  • Smith criticized both guild and mercantile-based economic systems as restraining.
  • Promoted liaise-faire (i.e. classical liberalism) ideology in The Wealth of Nations (1776).
  • Free market economy based on division of labor and the fewest government restrictions as possible
why britain
Why Britain?
  • Large supplies of coal and iron.
  • Navigable waterways and access to the sea. Expansion of roads (macadam in Britain, corvee in France).
  • Merchants had surplus capital from commercial revolution for investment.
  • Gov’t policies favorable to merchants (property rights, taxes, banking system)
  • Cultural innovation (dissenters) and free market ideas.
  • High standard of living; growing population driving demand.
  • Demand for cheap cotton goods at home and abroad made textiles the first to industrialize.
  • Cotton was cheap (slave labor) and durable.
  • “Putting-out” system could not keep up with demand (lack of organization, distance between workers); this required new system
factory system
Factory System
  • The organization of labor in one location allowed for increased production.
  • The location of factories near rivers and/or seaports allowed for the transportation of goods to be easier and provided power supplies.
  • Location in urban areas provided cheap labor supply.
  • Introduction of machines increased per capita production.
  • 1733, John Kay: flying shuttle
  • 1764, James Hargreaves: spinning jenny
  • 1769, Richard Arkwright: water frame, which improved thread spinning.
  • 1780s, Edmund Cartwright: steam engine to power looms; factory production of textiles.
  • 1793, Eli Whitney, cotton gin
the steam engine
The Steam Engine
  • 1700 – Thomas Savery invents steam pump.
  • 1712 – Thomas Newcomen built steam engine to pump water from mines.
  • 1769 – James Watt creates more efficient steam engine.
  • By 1800, steam power was being used to power looms in factories across Britain.
before the agricultural revolution
Before the Agricultural Revolution
  • open-field system: greatest accomplishment of Medieval agriculture
  • village agriculture; 1/3 to ½ of fields lay fallow.
  • Common land: used by village for livestock – fields shared by peasants.
  • serfs in eastern Europe were worst off; many sold with lands (like slavery)
the agricultural revolution
The Agricultural Revolution
  • Agricultural Revolution: major milestone in human civilization
  • impact of the scientific revolution’s experimental method was great
  • Application of scientific ideas - crop rotation most important feature.
enclosure movement
Enclosure Movement
  • end to common lands and open-field system
  • agriculturalists (land owners) consolidated lands and closed them off
  • game laws in England prohibited peasants from hunting game
  • caused considerable friction in the countryside in 17th and 18th centuries
impact of enclosure
Impact of Enclosure
  • traditional view of enclosure (Marx): poor people driven off the land
  • recent scholarship: negative impact of enclosure may have been exaggerated
  • As much as 50% of lands enclosed already by 1750 (much by mutual consent)
  • 1700: ratio of landless farmer to landowner = 2:1; not much greater in 1800
low countries
Low Countries
  • Netherlands and Belgium (Austrian Netherlands) took the lead in agricultural innovations
  • Increased population meant more food had to be produced
  • Cornelius Vermuyden: important in drainage of swamp lands into useful farm land.
  • Huge impact on southern England.
  • Viscount Charles Townsend (1674-1738): improved soil by crop rotation (turnips)
  • Bog and marshes drained extensively, manured heavily, regular crop rotation w/o fallowing
  • Jethro Tull (1674-1741): seed drill; more efficient than scattering seeds by hand
  • Robert Bakewell (1720-1795) selective breeding of ordinary livestock (animal husbandry): created larger animals.
atlantic economy in the 17 th and 18 th centuries
Atlantic Economy in the 17th and 18th Centuries
  • Characteristics
    • World trade became fundamental
    • Spain and Portugal revitalized their empires and began drawing more wealth from renewed development.
    • Netherlands, Great Britain, and France benefited most; Great Britain the leading maritime power.
    • Britain’s commercial leadership based on mercantilism
    • Navigation Laws: aimed to reduce Dutch trade in Atlantic region (1st in 1651, Cromwell)
atlantic slave trade
Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Basis of the Triangular Trade System.
  • Nearly 10 million transported.
  • Millions more died in the ordeal.
  • In the 1780s, European participation died off, but it was not outlawed by Britain until 1807.
south sea bubble
South Sea Bubble
  • South Sea Bubble: responsible for exploiting the asiento other commercial privileges won from Spain after Treaty of Utrecht (1713)
  • Took over large portion of public debt by receiving gov’t bonds in return for shares of its stock.
  • Stock values soared but the “bubble” burst in 1720
  • England recovered better than France who had created a Mississippi Bubble for New Orleans commerce.
  • “Bubble Act”: forbade joint-stock companies, except those chartered by gov’t
3 anglo dutch wars 1652 74
3 Anglo-Dutch wars (1652-74)
  • hurt Dutch shipping and commerce
  • Netherlands’ “golden age”: during 1st half of 17th century, now in decline
colonial wars britain v france
Colonial Wars: Britain v. France
  • War of Spanish Succession (Queen Anne’s War) (1701-1713)
  • Treaty of Utrecht (1713):
    • Britain received asiento (slave trade) from Spain
    • Britain allowed to send 1 ship of merchandise annually into Panama
    • Britain received control of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and
colonial wars britain v france1
Colonial Wars: Britain v. France
  • War of Jenkins’ Ear (1739): started over Spanish anger over British abuse of asiento.
  • Expanded into War of Austrian Succession the following year
  • War of Austrian Succession (King George’s War) (1740-1748)
  • Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748): restored status quo prior to war
colonial wars britain v france2
Colonial Wars: Britain v. France
  • Seven Years War (French and Indian War, The Great War for Empire) (1754-1763) Continental War primary between Prussia and Austria.
  • Global war in North America, Caribbean and India.
  • William Pitt the Elder: successfully led war effort from Parliament for UK; British naval superiority won the day.

Flag of Maryland Militia under G. Washington, defeated at Ft. Duquesne

colonial wars britain v france3
Colonial Wars: Britain v. France
  • Robert Clive defeats French backers in India at the Battle of Plassey (June 1557)
  • General Wolfe defeated Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham (Battle of Quebec) in Sept. 1759.
  • Treaty of Paris (1763):
    • Britain gained all French territory in North America (Canada and the US Midwest)
    • Spain gained New Orleans and Louisiana.
    • Removed French from significant position in India.
british in india
British in India
  • Took advantage of the teetering Mughal Empire.
  • The British East India Company grew in power; ruled Bengal.
  • India Act of 1784 placed India under control of British gov’t
  • The British Raj transformed India into the “Jewel of the British Crown” in the 19th century.
spanish colonies
Spanish Colonies
  • Spain’s Latin American colonies: helped revitalize Spanish empire in 18th c.
    • gold and silver mining recovered
    • significant trade with mother country
  • Creoles elite came to rival top Spanish authorities (about 10% of population)
  • Mestizos increased to about 20% of population
    • black slavery in Cuba and Puerto Rico
portuguese colonies
Portuguese Colonies
  • Portuguese Brazil: about 50% of population African by early 19th c.
  • more successful in blending races than in Spanish colonies or United States
  • Slavery remained in place until the end of the 19th century.