sirodgze2010. wood and wood products. CLASSIFICATION OF TREES. SOFTWOOD – ‘coniferous’ needle-like leaves ex: tanguile, apitong, lauan, fine, fir, etc. HARDWOOD – ‘deciduous’ broad leaves ex: narra, yakal, kamagong oak, walnut, maple, etc. PHILIPPINE TIMBER. HARDWOOD
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sirodgze2010 wood and wood products
CLASSIFICATION OF TREES SOFTWOOD – ‘coniferous’ needle-like leaves ex: tanguile, apitong, lauan, fine, fir, etc. • HARDWOOD – ‘deciduous’ broad leaves ex: narra, yakal, kamagong oak, walnut, maple, etc.
PHILIPPINE TIMBER HARDWOOD • NARRA – furniture, panelling, flooring, door panels, stairs, plywood and veneer • YAKAL and GUIJO – post and girders, jambs attached to concrete, wooden decks exposed to weather • KAMAGONG – chests, jewel boxes
PHILIPPINE TIMBER SOFTWOOD TANGUILE, APITONG & PHIL MAHOGANY – most common lumber in the market, for framing, joists, trusses, nailers etc. WHITE & RED LAUAN – for framing, chests and jewel boxes DAO – for panelings, and plywood veneer
Categories of Lumber • YARD LUMBER – ordinary light construction and finishing works, consists of 1 to 2 in. (thk) material manufactured to boards, roof plank, flooring, sidings and moldings of all kinds.
Categories of Lumber • SHOP LUMBER – usually left in 1 to 2 in. rough thickness often contain knots and defects, intended for use in shop or mills, sash, doors, cabinets, etc.
Categories of Lumber • STRUCTURAL LUMBER – usually cut into timbers 3 to 4 in. (or more) thick, intended for use in heavy construction.
Categories of Lumber LAMINATED SHEETS/BOARDS • Plywood is a type of manufactured wood made from thin sheets of wood. The layers are glued together so that adjacent plies have their wood grain at right angles to each other for greater strength.
Categories of Lumber LAMINATED BOARDS • Plyboard the core is made of board strips.
Categories of Lumber LAMINATED BOARDS • Particle board made by combining wood particles with resin binders
Categories of Lumber LAMINATED BOARDS • Flake board made by combining wood flakes with resin binders.
Categories of Lumber ENGINEERED WOOD • Medium-density fiberboard (MDF) is an engineered wood product formed by breaking down hardwood or softwood residuals into wood fibers, often in a defibrator, combining it with wax and a resin binder, and forming panels by applying high temperature and pressure. MDF is more dense than plywood.
Categories of Lumber Advantages: (MDF) • super smooth finish • eliminates the need for seasoning • ensures no warping, cracking, splitting or knot formation • excellent dimensional stability • has machinability as its premium property • highly resistant to ‘anay’ (termites) , ‘bokbok’ and other insects
Categories of Lumber Advantages: (HDF) • abrasion and dent resistant • Easy care and hygienic • Flamer/burn resistant • excellent dimensional stability • stain resistant • highly resistant to ‘anay’ (termites) , ‘bokbok’ and other insects
Adhesives • The types of adhesives used in engineered wood include: • Urea-formaldehyde resins (UF) • most common, most cheap, and not waterproof. • Phenol-formaldehyde resins (PF) • yellow/brown, and commonly used for exterior exposure products. • Melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF) • white, heat and water resistant, and often used in exposed surfaces in more costly designs. • Methylene diphenyl disocyanate (MDI) or polyurethane (PU) resins • expensive, generally waterproof, and do not contain formaldehyde.
Seasoning • Air drying is the drying of timber by exposing it to the air. The technique of air drying consists mainly of making a stack of sawn timber (with the layers of boards separated by stickers) on raised foundations, in a clean, cool, dry and shady place.
Seasoning • kiln drying The process of kiln drying consists basically of introducing heat. This may be directly, using natural gas and/or electricity.
Fastening materials • wood glue • nail • dowel • Screw • joints
Wood Joints • butt joint • rabbet joint • lap joint
Wood Joints • Dovetail joint • Mortise and tenon joint • dowelled joint
Wood Joints • Dovetail joint • biscuit joint • special joint