MET 2014 Dr. N.K. Gupta Department of Emergency Medicine & Department of Medical Education, ELMCH,Lucknow Target Audience – Medical Faculty Program – 5th MET Workshop as per MCI. MCI Observer – Prof.Dr.Uma Singh
MET 2014 Educational Objectives and framing competencies. Clarification of terms: competency, outcome, objectives How to write competencies.
MET 2014 Aims - broad statements about intent of education Goals - statements of educational intention that are more specific than aims. A few things to remember about goals: Every educational activity should have a goal - focuses on what learner will experience, rather than what instructor will share or do. It is a broad statement of purpose Clearly written objectives help to define outcome of activity Writing educational goals & objectives does not have to be a struggle.
MET 2014 Educational Objectives (EO) Learning Objectives Define educational objectives Differentiate the types of educational objectives. Define terms cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. Relate these terms to intellectual skills, communication skills and manipulative skills respectively. Formulate educational objectives belonging to three domains.
MET 2014 E O - expressions of what a teacher hopes his/her students can accomplish as a result of his/her teaching. • EO - policy statements of direction & provide foundation of entire educative structure. • Statements -express specifically & in measurable terms, attitude that will be developed,cognitive or psychomotor skills that students would be able to do as a result of prescribed mode of instruction
MET 2014 INTRODUCTION Education is concerned with modification of behavior. Guided & scaled down approach is required to bring out desirable behavior modifications. Guiding teachers & students in achievement of desirable behavior modifications. When purposes & objectives - stated clearly then educational program will be effective. Objectives - desirable outcomes of intended actions through mode of education.
MET 2014 Purposes Prepares Teaching-Learning Program Facilitates Course Planning Communicates desirable emphasis on treatment Provides for selective approach Helps in curriculum design Facilitates evaluation Facilitates learning
MET 2014 CLASSIFICATION Institutional or General Objectives Intermediate or Departmental Instructional or Specific Objectives Central Objective Contributory Objective Indirect Objective
MET 2014 Institutional or General Objectives Followed by all institutions offering same educational program. Developed with consensus with general curriculum objectives of the educational program. Written for attainment of overall aim or objective of a particular educational program. Example: Students acquire knowledge & able to provide comprehensive care to clients in institution & community in health and sickness.
MET 2014 Intermediate Objectives Related to particular learning experience or subject matter. Developed by curriculum committee. Example: Students acquire knowledge & able to provide comprehensive care to clients with eye, ear and nose diseases.
MET 2014 Instructional Objectives Specific, precise, attainable, measurable & corresponding to each specific teaching – learning activity. Formulated by teachers at instructional level. Written in a way to cater individual learning needs of students. Are clear & unambiguous description of teacher’s educational expectations of each students in class. Examples: 1. Defines Peptic Ulcer 2. Lists down the etiology of peptic ulcer 3. Explain the medical management of peptic ulcer
MET 2014 Central Objectives Written for every lesson or topic. Of supreme importance in any teaching activities. Provides a basis for formulating subsequent contributory objectives. Example: At end of class, students acquire knowledge regarding lecturing techniques, determinates merits & demerits of lecture & able to practice it in an effective way by minimizing demerits.
MET 2014 Contributory Objectives/specific objectives. Attainment of central objective is only possible through attainment of contributory objectives. To be written in terms of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, skills, appreciation & interest which will develop in student as a result of specific teaching – learning activity.
MET 2014 Indirect or Concomitant objectives Byproducts of attainment of other objectives. Have to be written down in order to bring out certain understandings, ideals & attitudes along with attainment of contributory & central objectives. Examples: Appreciate value of Lecture Method.
MET 2014 Characteristics Relevant: conform to needs of learner & institutional objectives. Logical Unequivocal: clear action verbs to be used. Feasible: be within time limit & resources available. Observable: able to see action performed e.g. Writing, spoken, performed. Measurable: able to evaluate, check & recheck e.g. rating, grading, marking etc.
MET 2014 BLOOMS’S TAXONOMY • Blooms and his associates developed a system of classification of objectives called the taxonomy of educational objectives. Taxonomy of educational objectives classifies objectives into three domains. Levels arranged in the form of hierarchy. Domains- Cognitive Affective Psychomotor
It can be said that an educational process without objectives would be like a rudderless ship with neither the teacher nor the learner having any control and final destination may be quite different from the intended. Conclusion
MET 2014 FRAMING COMPETENCIES
MET 2014 Steps to frame Identification of experts from several disciplines . Comprehensive review of relevant literature focused on curriculum. Consultations with key educators & content experts external to working group. Working group brainstorming sessions with exchange of relevant data. Consensus meeting to agree on methods & factors (values & principles, competency domains, and learning strategies), to draft a framework & use it to develop specific competencies. Additional evidence synthesis Serial teleconferences to draft competencies, concepts, principles & framework Review & approval of final framework and review documents Redwood-Campbell et al.BMC Medical Education 2011 11:46 doi:10.1186/1472-6920-11-46
MET 2014 Values & Principles Sustainability- living & working within the limits of available physical, natural & social resources Reciprocity - multidirectional sharing and exchange of experience & knowledge among collaborating partners Respect - context, values & cultures Honesty & openness - in planning & implementation . Humility - in recognizing our own values, biases, limitations . Responsiveness & accountability- to students and faculty . Equity - promoting just distribution of resources & access. Solidarity - ensuring that objectives are aligned with those of curriculum.
MET 2014 COMPETENCY capacity to testify in a court of law; eligibility to be sworn Origin & History for Latin comp etentia “ meeting together,agreement, symmetry,” recorded from 1797. n.1590s, "rivalry;" c.1600, "sufficiency to satisfy the wants of life,“
MET 2014 Outcome something that follows from an action, dispute, situation, etc; result; consequence. n.1788"that which results from something" originally Scottish, from out +come (v.). Popularized in English by Carlyle (c.1830s). Used in MiddleEnglish in sense of "act or fact of coming out" (c.1200). Old English hadutancumen (n.) "stranger, foreigner.”
MET 2014 OBJECTIVE Noun 1.something that one's efforts or actions are intended to attain or accomplish; purpose; goal; target Synonyms - 1. object, destination, aim. 2. impartial, fair, impersonal, disinterested. Antonyms – personal adj.1610s, originally in philosophical sense of "considered in relation to itsobject" (opposite of subjective), formed on pattern of Medieval Latinobjectivus, from objectum "object" (see object (n.)) + - n.1738, "something objective to the mind," from objective (adj.). Meaning"goal, aim" (1881) is from military term objective point (1852)
MET 2014 WRITING COMPETENCIES.
MET 2014 Competence Proven ability to use knowledge, skills & personal, social & / or methodological abilities, in work or study situations & professional & personal development. Obtained or developed during process of learning by student/learner Represent dynamic combination of knowledge, understanding, skills & abilities In various course units & assessed at different stages
MET 2014 3 TYPES Instrumental competences: cognitive abilities, methodological abilities, technological abilities and linguistic abilities Interpersonal competences: individual abilities like social skills (social interaction and co- operation) Systemic competences: abilities and skills concerning whole systems (combination of understanding, sensibility and knowledge; prior acquisition of instrumental and interpersonal competences required).
MET 2014 WHY ARE COMPETENCIES SO IMPORTANT TODAY Globalisation & modernisation - creating an increasingly diverse & interconnected world. To make sense of & function well in this world, individuals need. STRUCTURE OF A COMPETENCY Can be written by building their structure upon Bloom’s taxonomy -from lowest to highest level in cognitive, psychomotor & affective domains. Each individual competency should be specific It should start with an action verb followed by an object Competencies should be performance based & measurable.
MET 2014 TIPS FOR WRITING COMPETENCIES Define competencies simply & clearly Make sure competencies embody single, readily identifiable characteristic Avoid making competency too specific Make competency definition behaviorally- based Remove unnecessary qualifiers Opportunity to promote personal yourself. Each competency is equally important