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PTSD. POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER. I. WHAT IS PTSD AND ACUTE STRESS DISORDER. A. WHAT IS ACUTE STRESS DISORDER 1. DEFINITION--DSM-IV a. the person experienced, witness, or was confronted with events that involved actual or threatened death or serious

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PTSD

POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER

i what is ptsd and acute stress disorder
I. WHAT IS PTSD AND ACUTE STRESS DISORDER

A. WHAT IS ACUTE STRESS DISORDER

1. DEFINITION--DSM-IV

a. the person experienced, witness, or was confronted with

events that involved actual or threatened death or serious

injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others.

b. the persons response involved intense fear, helplessness, or horror

2. SYMPTOMS

a. subjective sense of numbing, detachment, or absence o emotional responsiveness

b. reduction in awareness of surroundings

c. derealization

d. depersonalization

e. dissociative amnesia (inability to recall an important aspect of the trauma.

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B. WHAT IS POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER

1. DEFINITION-DSM-IV

a. the person experienced, witness, or was confronted

with events that involved actual or threatened death

or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of

self or others.

b. the persons response involved intense fear,

helplessness, or horror.

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2. SYMPTOMS

a. recurrent and intrusive distressing recollections of the event, including images, thoughts, or

perceptions.

b. recurrent distressing dreams of the event

c. acting or feeling as if the traumatic event were

recurring including a sense of reliving the

experience, illusions, hallucinations, and

disassociative flashback episodes including those that occur upon awakening and

when intoxicated.

d. intense psychological distress at exposure to

internal or external cues that symbolize or

resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.

e. physiological reactivity on exposure to internal or

external triggers that symbolize or resemble an

aspect of the traumatic event.

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3. PERSISTANT SYMPTOMS

a. difficulty falling or staying asleep

b. irritability or outbursts of anger

c. difficulty concentrating

d. hypervigilence

e. exaggerated startle response

f. sense of foreshortened future.

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C. WHAT SITUATIONS CREATE TRUAMA

1. CHILDHOOD PHYSICAL ABUSE

a. spankings or hitting which leaves bruises

b. inappropriate discipline such as "standing on one's

knees” being place in a closet, going without

nourishment, left at home alone at an inappropriate

age, etc.

2. CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

a. Overt-touching genitals, fondling, any sex which

involves penetration such as intercourse, oral or anal

sex, use of objects, etc.

b. Covert-use of pornographic materials in front

of the children, making sexual comments

about the child's body or behaviors, nudity at

an inappropriate age, etc.

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3. DOMESTIC VIOLENCE --A witness to abuse is a victim of abuse

4. NEGLECT AND EMOTIONAL ABUSE

a. Inappropriate nourishment

b. Caring for children while under the influence of substances, including cigarettes.

c. Leaving children unattended or sleeping while children are awake.

d. Blaming children for parents' bad behavior

5. DISASTERS CAUSED BY NATURAL OR UNNATURAL EVENTS

a. Hurricanes, tornados, floods

b. Witnessing shootings

c. Suicide or unnatural death of a loved one

d. War

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II. RECOVERY FROM PTSD

A. EFFECTS ON BRAIN DEVELOPMENT AND BRAIN CHEMISTRY

1. Role of limbic system, amiglia, and adrenal glands.

2. Effects on corpus colosseum

3. Right brain lead—an emotional response to

solving a logical problem

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B. STAGES OF RECOVERY

1. Identifying the trauma

2. Identifying the perpetrator

3. Confronting blame v shame issues in the trauma--"I hate

myself for what he did to me". "What's wrong with me

that this keeps happening?"

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4. Taking action to report the trauma if possible—

Holding perpetrator accountable.

a. What is an outcry?

b. Why children recant--barriers may be fear of

reprisal, fear of abandonment, fear of having to testify, etc.

c. Repressed memories v false memories

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5. Stages of grief - denial, anger, bargaining, despair,

and acceptance.

a. Use of anger to develop boundaries and confront

abusive behavior

b. Bargaining is a result of co-dependency and fear

of abandonment.

c. Despair v depression

d. Acceptance doesn’t mean submission—it is

looking at the situation realistically and deciding

what we are going to do about it.

e. Understanding co-dependency and learned

helplessness as barriers to recovery.

.

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6. Developing tools for intervening with triggers.

a. Identifying neurochemical response from trigger

b. Identify intervention to prevent response from progressing

c. facilitating a cool-down

d. identifying and utilizing a support system.

Family shelter, CIU, CVRCC, AA/NA/Al-anon/ACOA

Private therapy, religious affiliation.

e. Re-parenting and inner-child work

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REFERENCESKnauer, Sandra, 2002, Recovering From Sexual Abuse, Addictions, and Compulsive Behaviors. Hayworth Press, Inc. 10 Signs of Relationship Abuse – Human Relations Media.