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PLAY IN THE PRESCHOOL YEARS Continued. Language and Literacy Development. Language development is vocabulary, grammar, and pragmatic development. Between 2 and 6 years, children learn some 10,000 words.

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language and literacy development
Language and Literacy Development
  • Language development is vocabulary, grammar, and pragmatic development.
  • Between 2 and 6 years, children learn some 10,000 words.
  • By age 4, preschool children have some understanding of the culturally accepted ways to carry on a conversation in their culture
  • On average, preschoolers learn 5 words per day.
rules of language
Rules of Language
  • Morphology. Use of plurals, possession, and tense in nouns and verbs.
  • Syntax. The way we order a sentence structure.
  • Semantic. Word meanings.
variations in language and literacy development
Variations in Language and Literacy Development

By age 6, children generally have a good understanding and usage of language. However, differences do occur.

Girls tend to be more proficient than boys. Research suggest that mothers tend to talk more with their daughters than sons.

Middle class children tend to be more proficient than children in lower class children.

Single born children tend to be more advanced than twins.

usage of play with language development
Usage of Play with Language Development
  • Infants play with language through sound exploration.
  • Toddlers play with language thru speech within certain grammatical patterns.
  • Preschoolers, according to Pellegrini, identifies the occurrence of speech play (A mode whereby young children explore and manipulate the many aspects of their language system).
characteristics of social emotional development
Characteristics of Social-Emotional Development
  • Preschoolers increase their understanding of themselves as individuals. Important characteristics:
  • Self-concept. Develops between 3 and 6. Develop firm awareness that they are separate from others and have individual characteristics.
  • Self-esteem. Judgments regarding self-worth and competence.
  • Self-regulation/emotions.Develop awareness of emotions and ability to control outbreaks. Developed coping strategies.
  • Social competence. Refers to prosocial behavior (secure attachment) and good problem-solving.
  • Empathy. Children transition from being primarily egocentric during infancy and toddlerhood to developing perspective taking traits as preschoolers.
family dynamics
Family Dynamics
  • In early development, parents are primary source of support and development.
  • Significant parent/child factors areas follows:
  • Parenting style. (Baumrind’s Parenting styles)
  • Temperament.
  • Disciplinary practices.
theoretical views on play and social development
Theoretical Views on Play and Social Development
  • Piaget recognized the role of peer interaction and play on socio-cognitive development.
  • Erikson noted the importance of make-believe play as a form of learning about the social world and trying out new social skills. He saw this as a process of developing social competence.
  • Vygotsky identified the importance of make-believe play among preschoolers. It allowed them to initiate an imaginary situation and follow a set of rules to play out situations. Developed greater social play without the consequences of real life.
  • Sutton-Smith examined play from the standpoint of evolution. Proposed that much of preschoolers play resemble that of primates and is necessary for survival. Rough-and-tumble play promotes initative and drive which will later prepare children for certain roles as adults.
  • --Suggest that traditional developmental theories present a sanitized, middle class perspective of play. Less focus on negative attributes of play such as aggression and violence.
developmental levels of social play
Developmental Levels of Social Play
  • Parten developed stages of social play.
    • Unoccupied. Child not playing with others; engaged in watching others and environment.
    • Onlooker. Spend most of time watching other children play. Differs from unoccupied in that the child is focused on a particular play group of peers.
    • Solitary. The child plays alone and independently with toys different from peers.
    • Parallel. The child plays independently but in the company of other peers; may even share toys. Child plays beside rather than with the other children.
    • Associative. Active play with other children and sharing of resources. Play with division of play roles/task delegation.
    • Cooperative. The child plays in a group that is organized for the purpose of making some material product; goal oriented play.
sociodramatic play11
Sociodramatic Play
  • Most advanced form of play which incorporates imitation, drama, and fantasy integration.
  • Children often engage in role playing and act out on their experiences.
  • Through make-believe play children are experimenting with social roles.
  • Sociodramatic play is the vehicle whereby young children use all of their developmental attributes. It is not merely role playing, but also the incorporation of skills such as problem-solving, organization, and execution of social skills.
smilansky s six criteria of dramatic play
Smilansky’s six criteria of Dramatic Play
  • Imitative role play. The child undertakes a make-believe role and expresses it in imitative action and verbalization.
  • Make-believe with objects. Movements or verbal declarations and/or materials or toys that are not replicas of the object itself are substituted for real objects.
  • Verbal make-believe. Verbal descriptions or declarations are substituted for actions and situations.
  • Persistence in role playing. Extended periods of role or thematic playing for at least 10 minutes.
  • Interaction. 2 or more children interacting within the context of a play episode.
  • Verbal communication. Verbal interaction related to the play episode.
play as expression of feelings
Play as Expression of Feelings
  • For preschoolers, play is a form of expression and communication.
  • According to Freud, children use play to resolve anxiety and to bring understanding to certain experiences.
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