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Jupiter. Michelle and Christina. Introduction to Jupiter…. http://www.solarviews.com/eng/jupiter.htm http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_diameter_of_Jupiter. Jupiter is the 5 th planet from the sun

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Michelle and Christina

introduction to jupiter
Introduction to Jupiter…



Jupiter is the 5th planet from the sun

Its diameter is about 0.00089 AU from pole to pole and about 0.00095 AU at the equator making it the largest planet in our solar system

Average distance from the Sun is approximately 5.20 AU

introduction to jupiter1
Introduction to Jupiter…


Its rotational period is about 0.41354 days, while its orbital period is about 4332.71 days

Jupiter’s orbital eccentricity is 0.0483, which indicates its orbit is fairly elliptical

It has a mass of approximately 1.09 × 1027 kilograms, making it about 318 times as massive as Earth.

introduction to jupiter2
Introduction to Jupiter…

Jupiter has very few similarities to Earth, or any of the inner planets for that matter

It is very much like the other three gas planets: Saturn, Uranus and Neptune

The four gas giants are mainly composed of similar chemicals (Helium, Hydrogen)

They all possess rings of some sort

Neptune has a very similar “spot” just as Jupiter does

However, Jupiter is probably most like Saturn as they both have a metallic hydrogen layer



Jupiter was named after Jove, the chief god of Roman mythology. The Italian scientist, Galileo was the first astronomer to view Jupiter through a telescope. However, ancient Romans first wrote about Jupiter as early as the 17th century, and they named the planet after one of their gods.

In ancient Roman religion, Jupiter was the King of the gods. The name "Jupiter" means "the best and greatest" (OptimusMaximus). He is equivalent to the Greek God Zeus.

Jupiter was the spirit of the sky and worshiped as the god of thunder and lightning. During wartime he was sought to protect in battle and was the 'giver of victory.' During peacetime he was the god of justice and morality.

jupiter s moons
Jupiter’s moons

Galileo Galilei discovered the first four moons

The interior of Io (upper left) indicates a larger rock core, a mantle and crust. Europa (upper right) demonstrates an icy curst, a liquid ocean, a mantle and a smaller rocky core - possible metallic. Ganymede (lower left) is similar to Europa and may also posses a metallic core. Callisto (lower right) may have a core, but very small - the interior is thought to be water mixed with rock.

formation of jupiter
Formation of Jupiter…
  • Scientists believe that Jupiter formed the same way as the other gas giants and soon after the Sun itself
  • As the solar system formed into a swirling disk of dust and gas (Milky Way), small particles came together over millions of years and eventually formed planetesimals


formation of jupiter1
Formation of Jupiter…
  • The core of Jupiter was formed from these objects, and it attracted other gases
  • These gases got trapped in Jupiter’s gravitational orbit
  • Over time heavier gases were forced to the center while lighter ones rose above, creating the massive planet


composition of jupiter
Composition of Jupiter…
  • Within the two liquid layers, about 90% is compose of Hydrogen, while approximately10% is composed of Helium
  • The minute core is compiled of solid rock and iron
  • While the atmosphere is made up of several different elements such as:
    • Methane
    • Water Vapour
    • Ammonia
    • Silicon-based Compounds


structure of jupiter
Structure of Jupiter…


  • Jupiter’s structure is composed of four main layers:
    • The Atmosphere
    • The Liquid Hydrogen and Helium Layer
    • The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen and Helium Layer
    • The Core
composition of jupiter1
Composition of Jupiter…

Jupiter’s Composition:

~ 71% Hydrogen

~ 24 % Helium

~ 5% Other


The chemical composition of Jupiter is almost identical to that of the Sun…

Sun’s Composition:

~ 70% Hydrogen

~ 28% Helium

~ 2% Other

conditions on jupiter
Conditions on Jupiter…

The atmosphere of Jupiter consists of intense wind patterns, running horizontally across the planet

The surface is composed of mainly gases, with clouds of ammonia crystals

Jupiter experiences different climates, however they are much more extreme than what we have on Earth

It’s famous “Great Red Spot” is actually an ancient storm

Inside this storm is essentially a massive hurricane

The average surface temperature on Jupiter is between -110 and -220 degrees Celsius



A main ring - The brightest ring

A halo ring - The ring that look like a doughnut

Two gossamer rings (Amalthea and Thebe) - Very faint rings that overlap each other.

The composition of the rings came from the pictures by the Galileo spacecraft in 1996 and 1997. which showed that Jupiter’s rings are made of dust. (AstronomyOnline.org)

the red spot
The Red Spot

Great Red Spot is a continual anticyclonic storm. The storm alone is larger than the planet Earth, or Mercury. According to astronomers, there is evidence that the storm existed on the planet at least since 1831.

mission to jupiter
Mission to Jupiter

The first probe to visit Jupiter was the Pioneer 10.

The most remarkable Jupiter mission was the Galileo probe. Launched in October of 1989, this provided some of the best views of the moons of Jupiter

Prometheus One will study Jupiter in depth and will also orbit three of its moons: Callisto, Ganymede and Europa. Continual study of the presence of water will be performs. Launch is proposed for 2015.

Some of the clearest images of Jupiter came from the Cassini-Huygens probe


Scientists have speculated that

life on Jupiter is possible. This

would occur beneath the cloud

cover where room temperature

conditions exist, these life forms would

be airborne although this theory is

thought to be highly speculative.(Vic


interesting facts
Interesting Facts…
  • http://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/facts-about-jupiter-3452.html
  • http://www.universetoday.com/15136/formation-of-jupiter/
  • http://www.historyoftheuniverse.com/jupiter.html

Jupiter’s name implies that it is the “King of the Planets

The diameter of the Great Red Spot is about the same as three of Earth’s diameters

Jupiter is slowly shrinking

It is the faster spinning planet in our solar system (takes10 hours to complete full rotation on axis)

Jupiter’s clouds are about 50 km thick

Jupiter’s magnetic field is 14 times as strong as Earth

The Great Red Spot is about 300 years old

Jupiter is flattening due to rotational forces

Jupiter is about 2.5 times bigger than all the other planets combined

Some astronomers believe Jupiter was a failed star

Approximately 90% of the upper atmosphere is hydrogen, and approximately 10% of the upper atmosphere is helium.


Murphy, Ricky L. "Jupiter - The Galilean Moons." Astronomy Online. Web. 04 Mar. 2011. <http://astronomyonline.org/SolarSystem/GalileanMoons.asp>.

Stathpoulos, Vic. "The Planet Jupiter." Space Projects - Space Information - Space Shop. 15 Jan. 2011. Web. 04 Mar. 2011. <http://www.aerospaceguide.net/planet/planetjupiter.html>.

"Answers.com - What Are the Conditions on Jupiter's Surface." WikiAnswers - The Q&A Wiki. Web. 10 Mar. 2011. <http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_conditions_on_Jupiter's_surface#ixzz1G4peMDng>.

"Jupiter (astronomy)." The Crystal Reference Encyclopedia. West Chiltington: Crystal Semantics, 2005. Credo Reference. Web. 10 March 2011.

"Interesting Facts about Jupiter - Fun Facts about Jupiter Planet." Lifestyle Lounge - Online Lifestyle Magazine - Lifestyle Management Tips. Web. 10 Mar. 2011. <http://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/facts-about-jupiter-3452.html>.

"Composition of Jupiter's Interior." Windows to the Universe. Web. 10 Mar. 2011. <http://www.windows2universe.org/jupiter/interior/J_int_compo_overview.html>.

Delehanty, Marc, and Grant Wallensky. "Jupiter, the Largest Planet." Astronomy Today. Web. 10 Mar. 2011. <http://www.astronomytoday.com/astronomy/jupiter.html>.