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Chapter 27. The Rise of Dictators and World War II. Section 1: “Steps to War”.

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chapter 27

Chapter 27

The Rise of Dictators and World War II

section 1 steps to war
Section 1: “Steps to War”
  • By the mid-1930s, ____________________, or absolute rulers, had seized control in several countries– Italy, Germany, Japan, and the Soviet Union. Their rise to power was due to economic and political factors that dated back to _______________.
  • The treaties that ended the war had left many nations feeling betrayed, particularly _________________ and ________________________. Of the losing countries, ____________________ was treated most severely.
  • WWI had left the economies of Europe in ruins. Although there was some wealth in the 1920, the economic situation collapsed with the _____________ ___________________.
“Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini”
  • One new war leader was ____________ of Italy. He began the political movement, ____________, an extreme form of patriotism and nationalism that was often linked to racism. They oppressed people who did not share their views. In 1925, he took the title, __________________, or “the leader.”
  • In the Soviet Union, the Communists tightened their grip on power in the 1920s and 1930s. _______________________, leader of the Communist takeover in 1917, died in 1924. ____________________ was his successor.

“Dictators Seek to Expand Territory”

  • While dictators were gaining power in Europe, the military was gaining increasing power in __________. In 1931, the Japanese attacked ________________, a province in Northern China rich in natural resources.
  • __________________ and __________________ both sought new territory. In 1935, Italy attacked __________________, one of
The few independent African nations. That same year, Hitler moved troops into the ____________________, a region of Germany along the French border. The French government was outraged, but it took no action, nor did the ____________ ______________________.
  • In 1936, Hitler and Mussolini formed an alliance known as the ____________________. After this treaty, Germany, Italy, and their allies became known as ____________. That year, a civil war erupted in _____________, pitting fascist forces against the elected government. In April, 1939, Spain’s army declared victory over the government and established a dictatorship under _______________________________.
  • In 1938, Hitler invaded Austria, home to mostly ____________ speaking peoples, insisting that they wanted to be a part of Germany.

“Appeasement at Munich”

After taking over Austria, Hitler set his rights on the __________________, a region of Czechoslovakia where many people of German descent lived. Czechoslovakia did not want to give up the region.
  • _____________ and ______________ pledged their support to Czechoslovakia if Germany attacked. England’s Prime Minister, ________________________________, stepped in and met with Hitler in an attempt to cam the situation. Their talks made little progress.
  • On September 29, 1938, Hitler and Chamberlain met in Munich, Germany, signing an agreement. Germany gained control of the Sudetenland and Hitler promised not to seek any more territory.
  • The Munich Agreement was an example of _________________, a foreign policy in which nations grant a hostile nation’s demands in order to avoid war.
“Germany Starts the War”
  • After invading the rest of Czechoslovakia, Hitler declared his intent to seize __________________________. Britain and France warned that this would be war.
  • Britain and France assumed they had an ally in ______________ since the Soviet Union and Germany were enemies. In Aug., 1939, Hitler signed a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union. They agreed not to declare war on each other. On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded ___________. Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. _____________________ had begun.
  • The Germans introduced a new method of warfare known as _________________, which stressed speed and surprise in the use of tanks, troops and planes. As Germany attacked from the W., the USSR attacked from the East. In less than a month, Poland fell.
As each nation surrendered, British soldiers retreated to the French seaport of ___________ on the English Channel. Under heavy German bombardment, British vessels evacuated nearly 340,000 British, French, and Belgian troops. In June, 1940, the Germans launched a major offensive against ______________. In 2 weeks ____________ fell. Hitler believed that Britain would seek peace after France fell.
  • The British had no intention of quitting. __________________, the new Prime Minister, declared, “We shall defend every village, every town, and every city.” To invade Britain, Hitler needed to destroy Britain’s Royal Air Force (RAF). In the summer of 1940, the German air force, or ________________. And RAF fought in the skies over Britain.
  • German planes also unleashed massive bombing attacks on London and other civilian targets. By September, the ___________________had left Hitler frustrated because the RAF was holding off the Germans. Despite constant bombing, the British people _______________________________.
“Germany Attacks the Soviet Union”
  • While Hitler’s forces conquered Western Europe, Stalin’s troops invaded _________________ in November, 1939. The Soviets then seized the ____________________ of Latvia, Lithuanian, and Estonia. Along the Baltic Sea. Hitler feared Soviet ambitions in Europe and wanted to invade Soviet wheat and oil fields.
  • Hitler invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. Then Hitler made a big mistake: he spread his troops into Leningrad and south into the Crimean Peninsula, instead of concentrating his troops on _______________________. The Germans tried to capture Leningrad from September 1941 through January 1944. About _________________ citizens died, many from starvation, but the city never fell to the Germans.
  • When the Germans approached Moscow in December 1941, they ran into the harshest winter in decades. The Nazi advance ground to a halt, and Soviet forces drove the Germans back.
“The United States Aides the Allies”
  • President Roosevelt tried to help the Allies. He supplied them with arms and other materials. H proposed the ____________ ____________________, which allowed the U.S. to lend or lease raw materials, equipment, and weapons to Allied nations.

“Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor”

  • In 1940, ________ joined the alliance with Germany and Italy. In 1941, an even more warlike government cam into power in Japan. Its leader was ___________________, an army general who planned to invade the Dutch East Indies for oil and also invade other Asian territories.
  • Only one thing stood in the way-- ___________________. On December 7, 1941, Japanese warplanes bombed the huge American naval base at _________________ in Hawaii. About 2,403 Americans died, both servicemen and civilians. Many of the American warplanes were destroyed or damaged.
  • President Roosevelt called December 7, 1941, “a date that would live in infamy” and asked Congress to declare war on Japan. On _____________ Germany and Italy declared war on the United States.
broadcast websites
Broadcast Websites

(Adolf Hitler Speeches)

  • (Churchill Speeches)
  • (FDR “Day of Infamy” Speech)
  • (Pearl Harbor Broadcast)
  • (WWII Broadcasts)

(Abbott and Costello Who’s on First?)

section 2 war in africa and europe
Section 2: “War in Africa and Europe”

“Mobilizing for War”

  • After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States had to ____________for war. Millions of Americans enlisted or were drafted.
  • More than ________________ Mexican Americans fought in Europe and Asia. Nearly ______________ African Americans joined the armed forces. Japanese and African Americans fought in_________________ units.
  • More than _______ women served in the U.S. armed forces. Many worked for the Women’s Army Corps (WAC) as mechanics, drivers and clerks.

“Battles in Africa and Italy”

  • The Americans and Stalin wanted to invade _____________ as soon as possible, but Churchill believed the Allies weren’t ready.
Since the summer of 1940, Britain had been battling Axis forces for control of northern Africa– especially ______________. Without Egypt, the British would lose access to the __________ _______________, the shortest sea route to Asia and Middle Eastern oil fields.
  • The British faced a tough opponent: _____________________ whose skills had earned him the nickname, “The Desert Fox” He commanded Germany’s __________________________, including two powerful tank divisions. In June 1942, the Germans had pushed the British to the Egyptian town of _____ _________________, 200 miles from the Suez Canal.
  • The British stopped him with the help of American general, _______________________, who landed in northern Africa in November 1942. When the Americans and Germans clashed in Tunisia, the ______________________ Americans fell, but the Allies regrouped and continued attacking. In May, the Axis powers in Northern Africa surrendered. The Allies now could establish bases from which to attack.
The invasion of __________ got underway with an attack on the island of ____________in July 1943. Allied and German forces engaged in a month of bitter fighting.
  • Read “A Voice from the Past p.765.”
  • By this time, the Italians had turned on __________________. The new Italian government surrendered in September 1945.

“The Allied Advances and D-Day”

  • Germany’s difficulties with the Soviet Union had grown worse. In September 1942, German forces attacked ______________, an important industrial center. The trapped Germans had no food or supplies. In February 1943, the remaining German troops surrendered.
  • With Germany’s defeat at Stalingrad, its hopes of conquering the Soviet Union____________________________.
  • In June 1944, the Allies’ plan to invade France got underway.
On the morning if June 6, 5,000+ ships and landing craft more than 130,000 soldiers across the English Channel to a region in northern France called____________________. The attackers included American, British, and Canadian forces. The day of this historic assault became known as ______________. It was the largest __________________________ in history.
  • The attack _________________ German forces positioned along the beaches.
  • They moved inland toward Paris, battling German troops along the way. On August 25, the Allied forces _________________ the French capital.
  • As the Allies moved West, ________________ forces advanced East. In December, Hitler launched on final assault, known as the ___________________________. It was costly. German casualties: 120,000, American: 80,000
section 3 war in the pacific
Section 3: “War in the Pacific”
  • Read into on p. 770.

“Japan Extends Its Empire”

  • At the same time as the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese forces launched attacks throughout the __________________. The Japanese also pushed further into ___________________, attacking Malaya and Burma. Great Britain ruled these lands and fought back, but were no match for the Japanese invaders.
  • It took longer to conquer _________________________. the Japanese took the capital, Manila, and pushed the Americans onto the ______________________. American and Filipino troops, led by ________________________________, fought the Japanese to a standstill for several months. As he was leaving for Australia, MacArthur promised, “________________ ___________________.” The Japanese mounted an offensive
and U.S. troops on Bataan surrendered and endured the brutal _______________________________.

“The Allies Turn the Tide at Midway”

  • The tide of war was turned against the Japanese beginning with an attack led by _________________________________. He led 16 bombers in the attack, causing little damage, but it shocked the leaders of Japan and boosted the Allies’ morale.
  • In May the U.S. Navy clashed with Japanese forces in the _______________. Neither side won a clear victory, however, the Americans had blocked the Japanese advance toward Australia.
  • They clashed again in June off the island of ______________. The _______________________, June 1942 was a turning point in the war.

“The Allies Advance”

  • After Midway, the Allies went on the attack to _____________ the lands Japan had conquered. Rather than try to retake
every Japanese held island, the Allies decided to take those that were not heavily defended by the Japanese. they could use these islands to stage further attacks. This strategy was known as___________________________.
  • The two sides fought an important battle on the island of _____________________. After 6 months of bitter fighting, the Allies won the first major land victory against Japan.
  • Playing a role in this victory, and many others, was a group of _____________________. The marines recruited about 400 Navajos to serve as _____________________________.
  • In October 1944, Allied forces invaded ___________________. The effort included a massive naval battle off the Philippine island _________________. The Allies won the three-day battle and Japan’s navy was so badly damaged that it was no longer a threat. Allied forces came ashore and liberated Manila in March 1945. ________________________ had returned.
The Japanese increased the use of their new weapon, the ____________________, or suicide pilot. They filled their planes with explosives and crashed them into Allied warships. Japanese pilots _____________________ for these missions, but they couldn’t stop the Allied advance.

“Iwo Jima and Okinawa”

  • By early 1945 the Allies began bombing Japan, but they needed bases closer to the mainland. They chose _________________ and __________________, both held by the Japanese. The Allies had to fight hard for every inch they took. In Feb., U.S. marines planted the flag at the top of the island’s ___________ ____________________, signaling victory.
“Victory in Europe”
  • By Feb, 1945, the Germans were retreating everywhere. That month, Allied leaders met in the Soviet resort of Yalta. Attending the ___________________ were FDR, Churchill, and Stalin. During the conference, the leaders made plans for the end of the war and the future of Europe.
  • Stalin promised _________________________ after Germany surrendered. The leaders agreed to establish a postwar international peacekeeping organization. They also discussed the type of government that would be set up in Eastern Europe after the war.
  • By the time of the conference, President was in poor health. In April 1945, just months after being sworn in for a fourth term, the president died. His vice-president, ___________________ succeed him.
  • In late April 1945, the Russians reached _________________. Deep inside his air-raid bunker, Hitler sensed the war’s end. On April 30, he committed suicide.
On May 2, the Soviet Army captured ______________. Five days later, German leaders officially signed an unconditional surrender at General Eisenhower’s headquarters in France. The Allies declared the next day, May 8, as _________________, or Victory in Europe.

“The Horrors of the Holocaust”

  • As the Allies fought toward Berlin, they made a shocking discovery. Scattered throughout German-occupied Europe were ___________________________ where Jews and people of other persecuted groups had been murdered. In what became known as the __________________, the Nazis killed more than ___________ of the Jews in Europe. the Nazis also killed millions of people of other ethnic groups, including Gypsies, Russians and Poles. An estimated _______________ people were killed in all.
  • The roots of the Holocaust lay in Hitler’s intense __________.
In a policy decision labeled “__________________________,” Nazi leaders set out to murder every Jew under German rule. To accomplish this, the Germans built ___________________. Officials crammed Jews into railroad boxcars and sent them to these camps. They forced _________________ people to work. All others were slaughtered. The Germans carried out their killings with a terrible efficiency. The largest concentration camp was __________________ in Poland. More than ______________ people are thought to have been murdered there.
  • The Allies battled this type of hate and bias by bringing German leaders ____________________ for what they did. First they had to defeat _________________________.

“Atomic Weapons End the War”

  • The Allies planned to invade Japan in November 1945. American military leaders feared that the invasion might cost ________________________ American casualties. Therefore, American officials considered the use of the _______________.
Shortly after entering the war, the United States set up the _______________________ in 1942. It was the top-secret program to build an atomic bomb and was led by ___________ __________________.
  • Soon after officials successfully tested the bomb, Truman told Japan that if it did not surrender unconditionally, it faced _______________________. The Japanese refused to give in and on August 6, 1945 the B-29 bomber, _________________, dropped an atomic bomb on the city of ___________________. The explosion killed more than 70,000 people and turned 5 square miles into wasteland. On August 9, the United States dropped another bomb on _____________________, killing another 40,000. On August 14, Japan surrendered.
  • On September 3, 1942, Japanese and Allied leaders met aboard the U.S. battleship _______________________ where Japanese officials signed an official letter of surrender.
section 4 the home front wartime production
Section 4: “The Home Front”Wartime Production
  • The effort to defeat the Axis powers took more than just soldiers. Under the __________________________________, (WPB) factories churned out materials around the clock. The United States was producing ___________ of all Allied ammunition.
  • Because so many factories needed workers, the war ended the _____________________________.
  • Because the armed forces needed so many materials, some of the items Americans took for granted became scarce. To divide these scarce goods among its citizens, the government established a system of ____________________, where families received a fixed amount of a certain item.
“Opportunities for Women and Minorities”
  • Much of the nation welcomed the growing “ _______________ ______________” as its cherished symbol for its new group of wage earners.
  • The war also created job opportunities for ________________. Many of he jobs they worked in were along the West Coast and in the North. As a result, more than 1 million African Americans migrated from the South during the war. The inflow of African Americans often inflamed _____________________. In 1943, a _________________ broke out in Detroit. Federal troops had to restore order after 34 people were killed.
  • ____________________African Americans enjoyed equal rights in some work places. __________________________ an African American labor leader helped achieve these rights in 1941. Randolph threatened to lead a march to protest for better jobs. To avoid it, FDR issued ______________________, which outlawed job discrimination in the federal government.
Other minorities helped with the war effort. 46,000 Native Americans left reservations to work in war industries. _______ also joined the ranks of war-related laborers. During the war the nation faced a serious shortage of ___________________. this policy was known as the __________________________.
  • Mexican American struggled against prejudice and sometimes violence. In what became known as the __________________ groups of American servicemen attacked Mexican Americans. Beginning June 3, 1943, the violence lasted 10 days before it was brought under control by the police.

“Internment and Japanese Americans”

  • In the aftermath of Pearl Harbor, a growing number of Americans began to direct their anger toward people of Japanese ancestry. Many Americans saw Asian immigrants as a threat to their ____________ and believed they could never fit into American society. Congress responded by banning practically all immigrants from Asia.
After Pearl Harbor, several newspapers declared Japanese Americans to be a _______________________________. President Roosevelt eventually responded to the growing anti-Japanese hysteria and n Feb. 1942, he signed an order that placed all Japanese-Americas in camps. this action became known as the ______________________________________. More than 110,000 men, women and children were rounded up. They had to sell their possessions and leave their jobs.
  • They were placed in _________________________, under guard. About ________ of the people interned were _______, born in the United States.
  • The nation’s fears of disloyalty of Japanese-Americans were ______________. Thousands of young men in the camps volunteered to fight for the United States. The all Nisei units fought in Europe. They were among the most _____________ units in the war. Daniel Inouye belonged to one of these units.
“The Legacy of the War”
  • Read “One American’s Story” (p.780)

“The War’s Human Cost”

  • No war has claimed so many lives or cause so much destruction as world War II. The human cost of both sides was immense. About ___________________ soldiers were killed and millions more wounded. The ______________ suffered the greatest losses, with at least 7.5 million deaths and another 5 million people wounded. More than _______________ American soldiers died and 600,000 were wounded.
  • ___________________ casualties also numbered in the millions. All told about _______________ Soviet citizens died in the struggle. China lost about ________________ civilians.
  • The war also created an enormous wave of ______________. After the war, ______________ refugees, most starving and homeless, tried to put their lives back together amid the ruins of Asia and Europe.
“Economic Winners and Losers”
  • The war left many of the world’s economies in ruins. Only ___ ____________ came out of the war with a strong economy. After the war ended the Depression, the U.S. economy continued to grow.
  • With the world’s strongest economy, the U.S. set out to help rebuild the economies of Europe and Japan. In 1948, Congress approved the ____________________ to help boost the economies of Europe. Under the plan, the United States gave more than _________________ to help the nations of Europe get back on their feet.

“Changes in American Society”

  • The country had to deal with the return of millions of soldiers and competition for jobs and education was great. The government responded by passing the ___________________. It provided educational and economic help to veterans.
  • The return of the military men created a housing shortage.
Although the Truman administration took steps to address the shortage many had to live in crowded urban slums of country shacks.

“The Nuremburg Trials”

  • The U.S. joined the international community in putting together a court to try _____________________ for their roles in WWII.
  • The trial opened in November 1945 in ___________________, Germany. The original 24 defendants included some of Hitler’s top generals. The charges against them included crimes against __________________, and referred to the murder of millions of Jews and others (Read “A Voice from the Past” p.782).
  • After almost a year, 19 of the defendants were found _______. 12 were sentenced to death. About 185 other Nazis were found guilty in later trials. The _________________________ upheld an important idea: people are responsible for their actions, even in wartime.
“Creation of the United Nations”
  • The war helped to establish another principle: nations must work together in order to secure ________________________. Toward the end of WWII, President Roosevelt urged Americans not to turn their backs on the world again.
  • In April 1945, delegates from 50 nations, including the U.S. met in __________________ to discuss creating a new international peace organization. In June, all 50 nations approved a charter creating the new peacekeeping body known as the __________ _______________ or UN.

“International Tensions”

  • Despite the teamwork of many nations after the war, tensions still arose in its wake. In 1948 the UN helped found the nation of _______________ to create a homeland for the Jews in Palestine. Arab nations immediately began fighting with Israel. _________________ also began to fight for independence. The U.S. was more concerned with ___________________
Despite suffering so much loss and damage, the Soviet Union had emerged from WWII as a great power. It had conquered much of _____________________.
  • During the war, the U.S. and U.S.S.R. had been uneasy partners. After the war, Stalin broke a promise with the U.S. to promote democracy in the nations he had occupied in Eastern Europe. Instead, he forced the countries to live under ______________________ regimes. The U.S.S.R. wanted to spread communism; the U.S. wanted to stop it. This led to future conflict.
  • The end of the war marked the beginning of the __________ __________. The atomic bombs dropped on Japan showed the world a powerful new weapon.