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Posing Questions to SHAKEN for Project HALO. Knowledge Systems Group University of Texas at Austin October 8, 2002. Goals. To represent the 50 sample questions given us by Vulcan To fit within the current SHAKEN framework as much as possible

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posing questions to shaken for project halo

Posing Questions to SHAKENfor Project HALO

Knowledge Systems Group

University of Texas at Austin

October 8, 2002

goals
Goals
  • To represent the 50 sample questions given us by Vulcan
  • To fit within the current SHAKEN framework as much as possible
  • To make it easy to pose questions, and to make the content of the questions obvious to users and examiners
  • To have the form of the questions feed into a problem solving architecture; more on this in a couple of days
limitations and disclaimers
Limitations and Disclaimers
  • We’ve yet to learn much chemistry, so some of these representations might be stupid
  • To represent the questions, we’ve pretended that a bunch of new concepts and relations are in the component library. How these concepts and relations are ultimately represented in the Library shouldn’t impact the basic approach presented here
shaken extensions required
SHAKEN Extensions Required
  • Questions are posed as Cmaps. However, unlike current Cmaps:
    • nodes may contain variables. The problem-solver’s job is to find a binding for variables that is consistent with the other assertions in the Cmap.
    • Groups of triples may be marked as “T/F”. The problem-solver’s job is to determine whether those triples are mutually consistent, and consistent with the other triples in the Cmap.
  • Because the questions are multiple-choice, most of them can be translated into true-false questions, then encoded with option (2) above. One advantage of this approach is that we can encode constraints into background knowledge that serve to eliminate multiple-choice options that are impossible.
  • We need to be able to input chemical formulae, chemical reactions, and quantities in scientific notation. These enhancements to SHAKEN could begin right away.
questions 1a
Questions 1a

Not

superclasses

Chemical-solution

Buffer solution

solute

ph

solute

NaCl

HCl

T/F

concentration

concentration

Ph-Value

1 M

1 M

less than

7

questions 1e
Questions 1e

Chemical-solution

solute

ph

solute

NaCl

HCl

T/F

concentration

concentration

Ph-Value

Question 2 & 3 are similar

Options b – d are similar

1 M

1 M

equal

7

question 4a
Question 4a

calcium

Chemical

reaction

reactant

hydrogen

product

Chemical

compound

T/F

We’ll need some representation for chemical formulae that supports reasoning, e.g. to check whether the equation is balanced. We’re going to ignore this issue for now.

formula

CaH2

question 4b
Question 4b

calcium

Chemical

reaction

reactant

hydrogen

product

T/F

Ionic

compound

slide9

Question 4c

calcium

Chemical

reaction

reactant

hydrogen

product

Chemical

compound

T/F

state

<solid, *room-temperature>

Note: the relation “state” is 3-ary

question 4d
Question 4d

calcium

Chemical

reaction

reactant

hydrogen

product

T/F

Chemical

compound

Chemical

reaction

reactant

product

water

H2 gas

slide11

Question 4e

calcium

Chemical

reaction

reactant

hydrogen

product

T/F

Chemical

compound

Chemical

reaction

reactant

product

water

Acidic solution

question 5
Question 5

Note: I’m going to use the has-part

relation in these examples; I suspect

we’ll extend the Clib with a more

specific slot.

White

precipitate

Chemical

reaction

Chemical

Compound

product

reactant

Has part

Dilute

Hydrochloric

acid

Ionic equation

Ag+

?

Note: I’ve taken many liberties here, representing as a single node

concepts that will probably be small groups of nodes. Examples:

“dilute hydrochloric acid” and “white precipitate”. However, I don’t

think that impacts the basic structure of the representation of this

question.

question 6
Question 6

Hydrolysis

CO32

reactant

equilibrium

expression

?

Note: again, taking liberties here; “equilibrium expression”

will probably expand into a small cluster of nodes and

relations when it’s coded in Clib.

question 7a
Question 7a

Chemical

reaction

formula

H2PO4 + HBO32 HPO42 + H2BO3

reactant

product

H2PO4

HBO32

HPO42

H2BO3

ph

ph

ph

ph

T/F

phValue

phValue

phValue

phValue

Note: simply alter

the inequalities for

questions 7b-e

Greater-than

Greater-than

question 8a
Question 8a

T/F

Chemical

compound

water

formula

insoluble in

CaCO3

Excess Ammonia Solution

soluble in

Dilute HCI

color

Note: I can’t get by with a single

slot “soluble in”, then use negation

to get “insoluble in”. For this example,

it would require marking “water” as

the filler of a negated triple while “Dilute HCI”

is left unmarked. I don’t think I can get this level

of control using our current interface for marking

triples as negated.

white

state

<solid, *room-temperature>

8b-e are minor variants of this one

question 9
Question 9

Chemical

compound

superclass

ph

<*Weak, acid>

Monoprotic acid

superclass

ph

3.0

HA

quantity

Ionization constant

.2 moles

?

question 10 part i
Question 10, Part I

Chemical Reaction

Chemical

compound

isa

subclass

Acid

Equilibrium Reaction

reactant

Chemical

compound

isa

Base

instance

_Acid-Base Equilibrium

Reaction01

Formula

HSO4 + H2O H3O+ + SO42

reactant

T/F

isa

Has-part

Base

Chemical compound

HSO4

Parts II and III are similar

question 11
Question 11

Chemical Reaction

H2C2O4 + 2H2O 2 H3O+ + C2O42

formula

Equilibrium constant

reactant

?

Note: this is part of

background knowledge,

not explicitly part of this

Cmap. The k1 and k2 values might be background knowledge, too.

H2C2O4

Diprotic acid

superclass

k1

k2

5.3 x 10-5

5.36 x 10-2

question 12

This one is a bit dense, and we’re not completely confident about it. You might want to skip it for now. In any case, note that the encoding of answer (a) is on the next slide. Operationally, it would merge on to this Cmap, to be included with the question itself.

Question 12

Gas

inst-of

Sc

R2

*brown

Chemical-Reaction

color

reactant

inst-of

Liquid

product

R1

Nitric Acid

object

color

Heat

concentration

causes

<*brown-yellow>

object

*high

origin

Change-Color

destination

<*colorless>

question 12 a
Question 12 a).

T/F

Nitric Acid

strength

<*strong, Acid>

question 13a
Question 13a

Chemical reaction

product

Chemical compound

reactant

T/F

NH3

Ca(OH)2

Chemical reaction

reactant

Nitric

Acid

product

White

precipitate

concentration

*dilute

Note: I’m not sure how

to represent this notion

Similarly for b-e

question 14a
Question 14a

Chemical compound

superclass

Note: this is part of background

knowledge, not an explicit

part of this Cmap. I’m going to

omit showing these triples from

now on.

NaNO3

quantity

ph

1 Mole

?

Similarly for b-e

question 15
Question 15

ka

HCN

4.0 x 10-10

ph

quantity

?

1 x 10-2 moles

question 16b note not part a
Question 16b (note: not part a)

T/F

Chemical

reaction

Chemical

compound

product

ph

reactant

base

Ca(OH)2

H2O

ph

Insoluble in

Weak base

water

I’m not sure about this…I’ve folded the conclusion of 16a (that the

Chemical compound is basic) in with the explanation of the conclusion

(that Ca(OH)2 is a weak base and is insoluble in water). Will that work?

questions 17 20 part a
Questions 17-20, part a

Chemical

compound

?

ph

Note: this is the encoding

of question 17 applied

to the compounds in part a.

This question needs to be

repeated for parts b-e.

Then, questions 18-20, which

are similar, need to be applied

to each part.

I’m not sure how to combine

the results to evaluate expressions like “the solution with the lowest ph”,

or whether we even need to.

Has-part

NH3

NH4Cl

quantity

quantity

1 mole

1 mole

question 21
Question 21

formula

?

Chemical reaction

reactant

product

C10H12O4S

product

product

reactant

CO2

SO2

H2O

state

O2

state

state

state

state

<gas, …>

<gas, …>

<gas, …>

<solid, *room-temperature>

<gas, …>

question 22a
Question 22a

T/F

superclasses

Molecule

Lewis acid

recipient

object

Obtain(?)

Obtain is not quite right because it is a transfer of possession

Proton

base

Water

question 23
Question 23

product

Chemical reaction

?

reactant

Cu

causes

reactant

H2SO4

object

intensity

object

Heat

*strong

question 24a
Question 24a

T/F

superclasses

Lewis acid

Na+

Cl-

CH3COO-

Mg2+

Al3+

ph

ph

ph

ph

ph

PH-Value

PH-Value

PH-Value

PH-Value

PH-Value

less than

less than

less than

less than

less than

question 25a
Question 25a

solute

H2SO4

amount

Solution

Amount-Value

dissociates-into

greater than

amount

H3O+

Amount-Value

solvent

dissociates-into

greater than

amount

H2O

HSO4-

Amount-Value

dissociates-into

greater than

amount

concentration

SO42-

Amount-Value

<0.1 molar>

It’s a pain to represent “the greatest”, etc

question 26 a e
Question 26 a).-e).

Na+

product

Chemical-Reaction

reactant

concentration

Na2CO3

?

NaHO3

concentration

quantity

concentration

quantity

3.0 M

70 ml

1.0 M

30 ml

question 27 a e
Question 27 a).-e).

quantity

Acid-Dissociation

?

solute

HA

temperature

concentration

K

25°C

0.5 M

<8*10-4 , 25°C>

Acid-Dissociation is a chemical solution, which is an Entity

question 28 a
Question 28 a).

T/F

Mix

product

base

2 H2O

object

H2O

H3O+

OH-

For b).-e). replace object and product

question 29 a e
Question 29 a).-e).

Chemical-Reaction

H2O

product

reactant

formula

Fe(OH)3

Fe(OH)2+ O2 H2O+Fe(OH)3

Fe(OH)2

O2

quantity

?

quantity

1 mole

question 30 a
Question 30 a).

Oxidize

product

reactant

inst-of

inst-of

_Acid1

H3PO4

Acid

ph

ph

less-than

S2

S1

T/F

For b).-e). replace reactant and product

question 31a
Question 31a

NH4Cl

NaNO3

ph

concentration

Na2CO3

concentration

ph

PH-Value

1 *molar

concentration

ph

1 *molar

PH-Value

1 *molar

PH-Value

greater-than

Na2SO4

Each property value in the domain of chemistry may have a mapping to the back end module that calculates it.

PH-Value

T/F

concentration

ph

ph

PH-Value

1 *molar

NaHSO4

31b to 31e are variants of this.

concentration

1 *molar

question 32a
Question 32a

HNO3

CuSO4

conductivity

concentration

KOH

concentration

conductivity

Conductivity-Value

0.1 *molar

concentration

conductivity

0.1 *molar

Conductivity-Value

0.1 *molar

Conductivity-Value

less-than

HF

Conductivity-Value

T/F

conductivity

concentration

conductivity

Conductivity-Value

0.1 *molar

BaCl2

concentration

32b to 32e are also variants of this.

0.1 *molar

question 33a
Question 33a

T/F

Bronsted -Acid

subclass

HCO3-

subclass

Bronsted -Base

This should be changed appropriately for parts b-e.

question 34
Question 34

causes

Make-Contact

?

inhibits

Damage

base

object

object

Skin

Acid

question 35
Question 35

product

Chemical-reaction

reactant

Precipitate

reactant

color

Chemical-Solution

Chemical-Solution

solute

*yellow

concentration

solute

concentration

?

0.5 *molar

Nal

0.5 *molar

I’m not sure whether Nal is a typo for NaCl.

question 36a
Question 36a

Chemical

reaction

HC2H3O2(aq) + CN(aq) HCN(aq) + C2H3O2

formula

reactant

Equilibrium

constant

product

3.7x104

HC2H3O2(aq)

CN(aq)

HCN(aq)

C2H3O2

T/F

ph

ph

b-e are similar,

although d is tougher

Ph-value

Ph-value

>

question 37a
Question 37a

Mg(OH)2 (s)

T/F

Insoluble in

soluble in

Dilute

Hydrochloric

acid

water

b-e are similar

question 38
Question 38

Interesting… this one requires representing changes caused

by a chemical reaction. Not sure how best to do this, but it

will probably use add-list, del-list triples.

question 39
Question 39

10 HI + 2 KMnO4 + 3 H2SO4 5 I2 + 2 MnSO4 + 8 H2O

formula

Chemical reaction

reactant

reactant

reactant

product

H2SO4

KMnO4

I2

HI

quantity

quantity

quantity

quantity

3 moles

4 moles

2.5 moles

?

question 40a
Question 40a

T/F

superclasses

Solution

Electrolyte

solvent

solute

Water

CH3OH

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