Introduction to Oracle. Physical Structure Logical Structure SGA / PGA Background Processes Backup Methods Computer Science Database – CS01 Administrative Tasks. Physical Structures. Datafiles (*.dbf)
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SGA / PGA
Computer Science Database – CS01
An Oracle database server consists of an Oracle database and an Oracle instance. Every time a database is started, a system global area (SGA) is allocated and Oracle background processes are started. The combination of the background processes and memory buffers is called an Oracle instance.
The System Global Area (SGA) is a shared memory region that contains data and control information for one Oracle instance. Users currently connected to an Oracle database share the data in the SGA. The SGA contains the following memory structures :
PGA is a memory buffer that contains data and control information for a server process. A server process is a process that services a client’s requests. A PGA is created by oracle when a server process is started. The information in a PGA depends on the oracle configuration. The PGA area is a non-shared area of memory created by oracle when a server process is started. The basic difference between SGA and PGA is that PGA cannot be shared between multiple processes in the sense that it is used only for requirements of a particular process whereas the SGA is used for the whole instance and it is shared.
An Oracle database uses memory structures and processes to manage and access the database. All memory structures exist in the main memory of the computers that constitute the database system. Processes are jobs that work in the memory of these computers.
Oracle creates a set of background processes for each instance. The background processes consolidate functions that would otherwise be handled by multiple Oracle programs running for each user process. They asynchronously perform I/O and monitor other Oracle processes to provide increased parallelism for better performance and reliability.
The most common background processes are :