Impression Formation. • We form impressions of people rapidly so we need to make short cuts • Central Traits- Honesty, friendliness, meanness, happiness, introverted, extroverted- traits that are stable across time. • Peripheral Traits- Personality traits which are affected by central traits.
Primacy & Recency Effects • The study of Jim Luchins(1957) refer to h/out. • Evidence you are presented with first about a person remains strong and has more influence than subsequent information.- Primacy effect • Later information has more influence than earlier information- Recency effect
Criticisms of Primacy • In our everyday life we encounter situations which provide us with information that prevents primacy occurring. • STEREOTYPING – Our assumptions we hold about people are strong enough so that we do not even register the initial information.I.e accents, clothes,ethnicity.
Application of Primacy & Recency. • Relationships. Jurors. Interviews How judgements can Affect individuals.
Implicit Personality Theories. • Our own ideas about which personality traits go together. • Halo effect. Dion (1972)/ Harai & Mcdavid (1973) Refers to the kind of information we generate about a person based on a positive or negative factor. • Personal constructs. Kelley (1955) Through our own experiences we develop our own theories of what people are like.
Application of Halo effects & Personal constructs. • The research does not tell us how we form first impressions. • Sometimes impression is based on verbal description and little else- not the same as meeting someone. • The halo effect does have implications for the judgements we make about strangers.
Stereotyping... • A rigid generalisation and over simplified set of ideas we have about others. • E.g. All black people can dance • Women are good homemakers • Jews are tight-fisted.
Study of stereotyping: • Name: Razran (1950) • Method: Correlation analysis. • Procedure: Participants were asked to rate pictures of girls on a broad range of psychological characteristics. Later they were asked to rate the same pictures but the girls were identified with a name which sounded Irsh/ Jewish. • Results:-Razran compared original ratings with the those linked to ethnicity and found differences: • Jewish girls were rated higher on intelligence and ambition but lower on niceness • Conclusion:- ratings were based on stereotypes held about particular ethnic groups.
Social categorisation. Tajfel (1971) Stereotyping is based upon thought processes: Differences between groups. Similarities in the same group. 14 & 15 yr old boys assigned to groups by toss of coin Each told if they awarded points to their group the other group automatically got the same points +2. Results: Participants chose pairings which created biggest difference in points between their own and other group ( 7 points for us 1 point for them!) Supporting Tajfel idea that we will discriminate against out groups.
The effects of stereotyping... • Can direct our attention to relevant stereotype. • Tends to discount the information which is inconsistent- so we don’t break down stereotypes they encourage us to keep them going.
The effects of stereotyping... • Explains why we use scapegoats.... • We use stereotypes as a way of justifying treating others differently.
Evaluation & Application...... • (-)Recreated situations (artificial) so they do not reflect real life. • (-)Participants may not tell the truth and give ‘politically correct answers’ • (+) Has helped raise awareness about prejudice..better understanding of why.
Sample Questions • Explain the difference between central and peripheral traits.(3) • Describe one study in which impression formation was investigated (5) • Explain how a stereotype can lead to a negative evaluation (3)