Cardiovascular System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Cardiovascular System

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  1. Cardiovascular System Diagnostic Procedures & Diseases

  2. Diagnostic Procedures: • History & Physical • Checking for symptoms of disease • Chest pain, shortness of breath (SOB), awareness of heartbeat (palpitation), fatigue, dizziness or loss of consciousness, edema, pain in legs when walking

  3. Diagnostic Procedures: • Electrocardiogram • Tracing of the electrical activity of the heart

  4. Diagnostic Procedures: • Phonocardiogram • EKG with heart sounds

  5. Diagnostic Procedures:


  6. Diagnostic Procedures: • Echocardiogram • Ultrasound that measures size and movement of the heart structures

  7. Diagnostic Procedures: • Transesophageal Echocardiogram

  8. Diagnostic Procedures: • The difference between ECG, Ecocardiogram and Stress Test • ecgvs echo vs stress test

  9. Diagnostic Procedures: • Doppler Ultrasound • Measures blood flow

  10. Diagnostic Procedures: • Arteriography • Radiopaque dye injected and x-ray series taken of blood flow

  11. Diagnostic Procedures: • Cardiac Catheterization • Right side of heart – catheter threaded into vein then into the vena cava then into the heart then into the pulmonary artery • Left side of heart – catheter threaded into artery then into left ventricle, then into aorta then into coronary arteries • X-rays taken during procedure • Dye also injected

  12. Diagnostic Procedures: Stent

  13. Diagnostic Procedures:

  14. Diagnostic Procedures:

  15. Diagnostic Procedures: Myocardial biopsy

  16. Diseases: • Arteriosclerosis • Hardening of the arteries • Atherosclerosis • Fatty deposits on the walls of the arteries • (high blood pressure, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, tension)

  17. Diseases: • Hypertension • 90% - no specific cause • 10% - symptom of another disease (ex: kidney disease) • Increases workload of the heart

  18. Diseases: • Bacterial Endocarditis: • Inflammation of the internal lining of the heart • Also involves the valves

  19. Diseases: • Valvular Heart Disease • Abnormalities of the heart valves • Especially mitral and aortic valves • Heart valves are scarred • Treatment – valve replacement

  20. Diseases: • Congenital Heart Disease • Defects in the heart that occurred during embryonic and fetal development • Defective communication between the chambers, malformation of valves, and malformation of septum

  21. Diseases: • Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) • Left side heart failure • Pumping action of heart diminished • Fluid accumulates and is retained in tissues • Compensations – increased heart rate, greater force of contraction, retention of fluid by kidneys, enlargement of heart.

  22. Diseases: • CorPulmonale • Right side heart failure • Hypertension in pulmonary circulation

  23. Diseases: • Peripheral Arterial Disease • Decreased blood flow to peripheral vessels

  24. Diseases: • Varicose Veins • Enlarged veins which can be inflamed

  25. Diseases: • Aneurysm • Weak section in wall of an artery – ballooning out, possibly rupturing.

  26. Diseases: • Thrombus • Blood clot that stays where it is formed

  27. Diseases: • Stroke (CVA) • Brain infarct • Caused by decreased oxygen supply to brain due to blood clot or hemorrhage • Symptoms: trouble walking, trouble speaking, paralysis or numbness in face, arm or leg, trouble seeing, headache

  28. Diseases: • Embolus • Blood clot or thombus that travels through circulatory system

  29. Diseases: • Sudden Cardiac Arrest • Sudden, unexpected loss of heart function, breathing, and consciousness • Symptoms: sudden collapse, no pulse, no breathing • Call 911 & Start CPR!

  30. Diseases: • Heart Attack • Blood clot blocks the flow of blood through coronary artery • Symptoms: pressure, pain in chest, left arm, back, teeth & jaw, shortness of breath, sweating, fainting, nausea & vomiting, heartburn, clammy skin, dizzy, fatigue