《英汉语篇翻译》教程著者：范守义、郭立秋、贾令仪《英汉语篇翻译》教程著者：范守义、郭立秋、贾令仪 Text A: IMMIGRANTS TAKE TO U.S. STREETS IN SHOW OF STRENGTH Passage 4:
译文讲评（Text A） • 第1段第1句前半句 • Hundreds of thousands of immigrants and their supporters skipped work, school and shopping on Monday.
skip v.skipped, skip·ping, skips v.tr. 1. To leap or jump lightly over: skip rope. 2. a. To pass over without mentioning; omit: skipped the minor details of the story. b. To miss or omit as one in a series: My heart skipped a beat. 3. To cause to bounce lightly over a surface; skim. 4. To be promoted beyond (the next grade or level). 5. Informal To leave hastily: The fugitive skipped town. 6. Informal To fail to attend: We skipped science class again. • 这句话当然也可以翻译成“罢工、罢课、罢市”，接下去的话就要译成“并且游行”，这样就没有把skipped … and 翻译出来
第1段 • “in dozens of cities from coast to coast”， • 其中dozen是数量单位词，一般在2 dozens以上，通常人们理解为3 dozens，我们以“几十”虚指之。from coast to coast对于美国人不言自明，我们还是明译为好。
第2段 • conveyed in peaceful but sometimes boisterous ways， • 感觉到peaceful是与boisterous相对，不是与violent 或者war相对，所以选用“平和”与“闹闹哄哄”相对。
第3段第1句前半句 • Originally billed as a nationwide economic boycott under the banner “Day Without an Immigrant,” • 句中billed是由名词转换语法功能而作为动词使用的，因此，其动词的用法与名词的意义是一致的。
bill n. 1. An itemized list or statement of fees or charges. 2. A statement or list of particulars, such as a theater program or menu. 3. The entertainment offered by a theater. 4. A public notice, such as an advertising poster. a. A piece of legal paper money: a ten-dollar bill. b. Slang One hundred dollars. 6. a. A bill of exchange. b. Obsolete A promissory note. 7. a. A draft of a proposed law presented for approval to a legislative body. b. The law enacted from such a draft: a bottle bill in effect in three states; the GI Bill. 8. Law A document presented to a court and containing a formal statement of a case, complaint, or petition.
bill tr.v.billed, bill•ing, bills 1. To present a statement of costs or charges to. 2. To enter on a statement of costs or on a particularized list. 3. a. To advertise or schedule by public notice or as part of a program. b. To declare or describe officially; proclaim: a policy that was billed as an important departure for the administration.
第3段 • the day evolved into a sweeping round of protests， • 其中sweeping一般会翻译成“席卷”，“席卷”什么呢？“席卷全国”，根据呢？就是前面说的nationwide economic boycott under the banner “Day Without an Immigrant”。
sweeping adj 1. comprehensive and wide-ranging sweeping reforms 2. indiscriminate or without reservations sweeping statements 3. decisive or overwhelming a sweeping victory 4. taking in a wide area a sweeping glance 5. driving steadily onwards, esp over a large area a sweeping attack
第4段第1句前半句 • The protesters, a mix of illegal immigrants and legal residents and citizens, were mostly Latino. • 有citizens这个词，仅翻译成“公民”是否就够了？其二，Latino，尤指美国西部各州讲西班牙语的来自拉丁美洲或者西班牙的美国人，在美国东部的讲西班牙语的那些人喜欢被称为Hispanic Americans。其三，还应该注意legal的语法功能，判断legal所修饰的对象包括什么？仅包括residents，还是residents and citizens两者都包括？
第4段第2句 • opponents of the war in Iraq and others without a direct stake in the immigration debate took to the streets. • 其中stake一词用的是引申义，那么它的意义是怎样引申出来的呢？看看下面该词的全部词性及其义项：
stake n. 1. A piece of wood or metal pointed at one end for driving into the ground as a marker, fence pole, or tent peg. 2. a. A vertical post to which an offender is bound for execution by burning. b. Execution by burning. Used with the:condemned to the stake. 3. A vertical post secured in a socket at the edge of a platform, as on a truck bed, to help retain the load. 4. Mormon Church A territorial division consisting of a group of wards under the jurisdiction of a president.
5. Sports & Games • Money or property risked in a wager or gambling game. Often used in the plural. See Synonyms at bet. • The prize awarded the winner of a contest or race. • A race offering a prize to the winner, especially a horserace in which the prize consists of money contributed equally by the horse owners. 6. a. A share or an interest in an enterprise, especially a financial share. b. Personal interest or involvement: a stake in her children’s future. 7. A grubstake. 比较：Earnings may not benefit individuals or stake-holders. .... employees are not accountable to anybody with a direct stake in the organization.
第5段第1句 • I think it’s only fair that I speak up for those who can’t speak for themselves,” said Aimee Hernandez. • 其中 it is only fair的意思是used for saying that a particular action is correct or reasonable, 如It is only fair to let him go.或it is only fair (that)，如 It’s only fair that I should pay half of the cost.
第6段 • But among those who favor stricter controls on illegal immigration, the protests hardly impressed. • 这个句子的粗体部分的意思是the reference to size of the demonstration had no effect on those who wanted to enforce illegal immigration legislation。In other words, certain people (i.e. those who favour stricter controls on illegal immigration) were not impressed by the protests.
第7段 • When the rule of lawis dictatedby a mob of illegal aliens taking to the streets, especially under a foreign flag, then that means the nation is not governed by a rule of law—it is a mobocracy,” • Jim Gilchrist谈到the rule of law和 a rule of law，冠词和不定冠词的用法，有时决定一个词组的意义，一定要加以区别，前者指内容，可以译成“法律条文”，后者特指一个条款，可以译成“某个法律条款”。
Dictate verb ( GIVE ORDERS ) [I or T] to give orders, or state something exactly, with total authority The UN will dictate the terms of troop withdrawal from the region. [+ question word] He disagrees with the government dictating what children are taught in schools. [+ that ] The tennis club rules dictate that suitable footwear must be worn on the courts. [T] to influence something or make it necessary The party’s change of policy has been dictated by its need to win back the support of voters. [+ that ] I wanted to take a year off, but my financial situation dictated that I got a job.
第9段第1句 • Stores and restaurants in Los Angeles, Chicago and New York closedbecause workers did not show up, • 先仔细阅读下面词条的各个义项，找到适合当前这个句子的那个义项，第一个跳入你脑海的中文对应词是什么？我们能立即判断，就是这个词了吗？
Close v. closed, closing, closes v.tr. 1. To move (a door, for example) so that an opening or passage is covered or obstructed; shut. 2. To bar access to: closed the road for repairs. 3. To fill or stop up: closed the cracks with plaster. 4. To stop the operations of permanently or temporarily: closed down the factory. 5. To make unavailable for use: closed the area to development; closed the database to further changes. 6. To bring to an end; terminate: close a letter; close a bank account. 7. To bring together all the elements or parts of: Management closed ranks and ostracized the troublemaker. 8. To join or unite; bring into contact: close a circuit. 9. To draw or bind together the edges of: close a wound. 10. Sports To modify (one’s stance), as in baseball or golf, by turning the body so that the forward shoulder and foot are closer to the intended point of impact with the ball. 11. To complete the final details or negotiations on: close a deal. 12. Archaic To enclose on all sides.
Close v.intr. 1. To become shut: The door closed quietly. 2. To come to an end; finish: The book closes on a hopeful note. 3. To reach an agreement; come to terms. 4. To cease operation: The shop closes at six. 5. To be priced or listed at a specified amount when trading ends: Stocks closed higher on Monday. 6. a. To engage at close quarters: closed with the enemy. b. To draw near: The orbiter closed with the space station in preparation for docking. 7. To come together: My arms closed around the little child. 8. Baseball To finish a game by protecting a lead. Used of relief pitchers.
第9段第1句 • or as a display of solidarity with demonstrators. • 我们中国翻译在翻译到“团结”这个词时，往往会毫不犹豫地将其译成unity。其实不然，在好多情况下都该使用solidarity这个词。
sol·i·dar·i·ty n. • A union of interests, purposes, or sympathies among members of a group; fellowship of responsibilities and interests: “A downtrodden class ... will never be able to make an effective protest until it achieves solidarity” (H.G. Wells).
Unity n.pl -ties 1. the state or quality of being one; oneness 2. the act, state, or quality of forming a whole from separate parts 3. something whole or complete that is composed of separate parts 4. mutual agreement; harmony or concord the participants were no longer in unity 5. uniformity or constancy unity of purpose 6. (Mathematics) Maths : a. the number or numeral one b. a quantity assuming the value of one the area of the triangle was regarded as unity c. the element of a set producing no change in a number following multiplication 7. (Fine Arts & Visual Arts / Art Terms) the arrangement of the elements in a work of art in accordance with a single overall design or purpose 8. (Performing Arts / Theatre) any one of the three principles of dramatic structure deriving from Aristotle's Poetics by which the action of a play should be limited to a single plot (unity of action), a single location (unity of place), and the events of a single day (unity of time) [from Old French unité, from Latin ūnitās, from ūnus one]
第9段第2句 • … more than half a million people attended two demonstrations in and near downtown. • 从上下文和实际情况，我们可以判断two demonstrations这里当指“两拨游行”，而不是“两次游行”，也就是说这里所说的two demonstrations是主张不尽相同的游行。从这里可以看出译者是动了脑子的。
第9段第3句 • at Benito Juarez High School in Pilsen， • 记住美国的High School不能翻译成“中学”，应该翻译成“高中”（9-12年级），而我们中国的“中学”若是翻译成Middle School， 则是美国的“初中”(6-8年级)。不要搞乱了。