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Nature Of Hydrogen Demand for Fuel Cells And NMRL’s Experience on Onsite Hydrogen Generation . S Roy Choudhury, J. Rangarajan Naval Materials Research Laboratory, Ambernath-421506. Hydrogen Provision. Distributed hydrogen retail outlets for mobile / stationary applications

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Nature Of Hydrogen Demand for Fuel Cells And NMRL’s Experience on Onsite Hydrogen Generation


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    1. Nature Of Hydrogen Demand for Fuel Cells And NMRL’s Experience on Onsite Hydrogen Generation S Roy Choudhury, J. RangarajanNaval Materials Research Laboratory, Ambernath-421506

    2. Hydrogen Provision • Distributed hydrogen retail outlets for mobile / stationary applications • Compressed H2 transport by pipelines like CNG network • Onsite H2 generation from other feed stocks • Coal • Hydrocarbons • Alcohols • Ammonia

    3. Hydrogen Provision • Online/onboard hydrogen generation for mobile systems • Reforming /cracking of hydrocarbon feed stocks • Reforming/cracking of alcohols • Other inorganic/organic feed stocks Ammonia cracking Hydride hydrolysis/cracking

    4. H2 quality Impurity tolerance increases with increase in operating temperature of fuel cells

    5. Phosphoric acid fuel cell Operates at 130-2000C CO tolerance < 2% S and Cl in ppm level Polymer electrolyte fuel cells Operates at 60-800C CO tolerance in ppm level S & Cl in ppm level Low temperature acid FCs Limits the primary source of fuel

    6. Low temperature alkaline FCs • Operates around 120-1700C • High CO tolerance • CO2 tolerance in ppm level • Cl and S in ppm level Difficult for terrestrial application

    7. High temperature FCs • Molten Carbonate FCs • Can take high CO • S & Cl in ppm level Solid Oxide FCs • Can take CO as fuel • S & Cl in ppm level

    8. The Key issues The Fuel Quality Fuel cells are advanced power generation devices requires quality feedstock, free from sulfur The oil refineries have to provide uniform low sulfur fuels.

    9. The Key issues The conversion Devices High cost for CO removal – PEMFC Low reformer cost – PAFC, SOFC, MCFC Compact thermal systems to realize mini converters

    10. Fuel cell program in NMRL

    11. Fuel cellOur mission • To develop totally indigenous fuel cell for Indian armed forces & commercial use • All necessary subsystems like fuel processor, startup systems etc. • Spin off benefits

    12. Achievements so far … • Catalyst • Electrode • Acid holder matrix • Graphite gas distributor plate • Acid management systems • Humidifiers • Thermal systems • Power conditioners • Online hydrogen generation devices • Hydrogen filter systems Prototypes :- Fuel cell based power packs with all accessories

    13. NMRL’s View Onsite hydrogen generation is the way to introduce Fuel Cells successfully For mobile application – supply purified H2 from onsite local generation center – PEMFCs, PAFCs For stationary application – build onsite H2 generation plant – PAFCs, SOFC

    14. NMRL’s experience in onsite hydrogen generation for fuel cells

    15. Generation of H2 for possible fuel cell applications From organic feed stocks From inorganic feed stocks NH3 Alcohols Hydrocarbons Hydrazine methanol Bio H2 using algae ethanol CNG LPG Naptha, diesel etc. NMRL’s interest

    16. storage of H2 for possible fuel cell applications Compressed gas Metal hydride NaAlH4 etc. Occluded H2 C SWNT, Organo-metallic framework etc. Chemical hydrides Lowtemperature storage NaBH4 , CaH2 High pressure light weight storage NMRL’s interest

    17. H2 Content & requirement

    18. Hydrogen generation devices • Reformers • Online generation of hydrogen by methanol reforming • Various configurations, for 2lpm (100W), 80 lpm (5kW),900 lpm (60kW) power packs • Output CO level <0.5% • Hydrogen crackers • One shot use • Suitable for subwatt to 100 watt systems • Different options:- • super-corroding alloy /Calcium hydride hydrolysis • NaBH4 in caustic base solution – catalyst induced hydrolysis

    19. Pilot methanol reformer – 8-10 lpm hydrogen output for process design and scale up studies (1997) Compact reformer 1999 (80 lpm hydrogen) Evolution of methanol reformer at NMRL Bukhari reformer 2003 2-5 lpm of hydrogen Instrument free, very compact, zero powered / rotating device

    20. High capacity methanol reformer , 50nM3/hr –2003 hydrogen, suitable to ~60kW PAFC power pack Evolution of methanol reformer at NMRL Process design of reformer – NMRL Detail engineering, control systems and installation – Xytel India Commissioning - NMRL

    21. Hydrogen generator for small fuel cells • Liquid phase refillable cracker-NaBH4 in caustic • Catalytic (Pt on IRA-100 resin) hydrolysis • Capacity 0-2watt • Protable, orientation free usage, • Floating type • Super corroding alloy, one shot cartridge • Capacity 5-25 watt • Controlled water hydrolysis • CaH2 based, one shot cartridge • Capacity 50-150 watt • Controlled water hydrolysis

    22. Cartridge type humidifier with hydrogen heater Thermal systems • Snadwich type steam heater/cooler for quick pre-heating and heat removing of PAFC stacks Bayonet type forced methanol based catalytic heater for compact reformer Capillary action based natural methanol catlytic burner Bayonet type natural & fan based hydrogen heater

    23. NMRL’s Fuel Cells – Products available for commercial usage 700-1000 watt PAFC based UPS / generator with built in compact methanol reformer • Delivers 220V AC, 700-1000VA • PAFC battery (35 Kg) Nova-1 / 2 Nominal power of 1000 watt 100 watt self contained power pack • Output :- 12+0.05 V DC upto 100 watt (max) • Size 52x27x25 cm (12Kg) • Hydrogen source by hydride cracking • Hydrogen source by compact catalytic burner based reformer

    24. Conclusion • Hydrogen source, generation methodology & fuel cell type – critical for successful application • Available supply infrastructure can be catered for hydrogen application • This is possible through onsite hydrogen generation

    25. Generally Hydrogen is produced in industry at the expense of utility For fuel cell application utility is generated at the expense of hydrogen

    26. Thank you