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Intermediate Sanctions. Emergence in 1980s/Goals Programs Boot Camps. Emergence of Intermediate Sanctions. Context of 1970s and 1980s Pragmatic concerns Conceptual/Sentencing concerns Filler for gap between probation/incarceration Probation not “tough” enough

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intermediate sanctions

Intermediate Sanctions

Emergence in 1980s/Goals

Programs

Boot Camps

emergence of intermediate sanctions
Emergence of Intermediate Sanctions
  • Context of 1970s and 1980s
    • Pragmatic concerns
    • Conceptual/Sentencing concerns
      • Filler for gap between probation/incarceration
    • Probation not “tough” enough
      • RAND report on felony probation
goals of ims
Goals of IMS
  • Sold differently to conservatives and liberals
    • Liberals
      • Keep some folks out of prison (diversion)
      • Better match crime/sentence (justice model)
    • Conservatives
      • Save money (diversion)
      • Get tougher on probationers (reduce recidivism)
corrections continuum
Corrections Continuum
  • Fines, Restitution, Community Service
  • Probation
  • House arrest- with or w/o EM
  • Intensive Supervision Probation/Parole
  • Halfway houses  RCCFs
    • Day Reporting Centers
    • Restitution Centers
  • Boot Camps
restitution
Restitution
  • Historically very old, resurgence first with victim’s rights movement, then RJ
  • Restricted to compensation as direct result of crime
    • Physical injuries, $ loss, counseling, HIV testing…
  • Used on up to 30% of probationers
    • Victims typically apply through prosecutor
    • Restitution centers
    • Indigent?
    • Effectiveness
community service
Community Service
  • Community service order
    • Rarely used as “stand alone” (condition of probation)
      • Only 6% of felony sentences as “add-on”
    • Not used widely in U.S. until late 1960s
  • Rebirth under restorative justice
    • For harms that cannot be repaired through restitution
  • No effect on recidivism (not studied much)
  • Diversion?
fines day fines
Fines/Day Fines
  • Never caught on in U.S. for street crime
    • Why? Where are fines used in U.S.?
  • Contrast with Europe
    • In Germany, 81% of adult criminal cases result in fine as only punishment
  • Upsides of Fines?
    • Flexible, add-on easily, could divert ($, social ties)
  • Downside?
home confinement
Home Confinement
  • House arrest/home confinement as another “old” punishment
  • Re-invented in the 1980s
    • Sexier with electronic monitoring
      • Passive vs. Active phone line; Remote location monitor
      • GPS technology  “drive by”
      • Key issue = who responds and how
  • Effective?
  • Fair?
slide10
RCCF
  • Half-way house one of the earliest forms of corrections History
    • Modern Forms: Residential Community Corrections Facility
      • Traditional Halfway house + Expanded services
        • More public, larger, state level facilities
      • Day reporting centers
      • Restitution Centers
correctional boot camps
Correctional Boot Camps
  • Emergence in the early 1980s
    • Recycling of many old ideas (labor/discipline)
    • Goals
      • Reduce prison crowding (save money)
      • Reduce recidivism
      • Provide additional sentencing option
  • Nature of boot camps
    • Short, military style, physical labor/drill
    • Young, lower risk offenders
    • Deterrence based, though some have treatment
boot camp article
Boot Camp Article
  • Meta-analysis of Boot Camps
    • Literally a study of studies
    • Compute effect size for every boot camp evaluation study
      • Effect size = how much effect did it have
      • Their measure of effect size = odds ratio

CONTROL GROUP RECIDIVISM

---------------------------------- = ODDS RATIO

BOOT CAMP RECIDISM

1 = no effect, less than one is bad effect, greater than one is good (reduce crime) effect

boot camp findings
Boot Camp Findings
  • Average odds ratio across all of the studies was roughly 1
    • The average does hide some meaningful variation
      • 27 studies found no differences
      • 8 comparisons favored control group, 9 favored the boot campers
    • Key question?
    • Factors that might explain variation in effectiveness