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  1. Presentation created by Robert Martinez Primary Source: The Americans, McDougal Littell Images as cited. http://cdn.dipity.com/uploads/events/d865c3938d6f94205edd7b422330822f_1M.png http://corsaires.ca/_photo/8200_1490_1812_g.jpg

  2. Jefferson won reelection in 1804 but a crisis clouded his second administration. Renewed fighting between Britain and France threatened American shipping. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1e/Thomas_Jefferson_by_Rembrandt_Peale,_1800.jpg/164px-Thomas_Jefferson_by_Rembrandt_Peale,_1800.jpg http://www.sjsapush.com/resources/ElectoralCollege1804-Large.png?timestamp=1254646499849

  3. The crisis continued into the administration of James Madison, who was elected president in 1808. http://www.shmoop.com/media/images/large/james-madison-portrait.jpg

  4. Four years later, Madison led the nation into the War of 1812 against Great Britain.

  5. Although France and Britain both threatened U.S. ships between 1805 and 1814, Americans focused their anger on the British. http://bobrowen.com/warof1812/1812Jansonsinking.jpg

  6. One reason was the British policy of impressment, the practice of seizing Americans at sea and “impressing,” or drafting them into the British navy. http://www.thewarof1812.com/Museum/Lesson5/docume1.jpg

  7. Americans grew even angrier after learning that officials in British Canada were supplying arms to Native Americans in support of their ongoing battle against American settlers. http://www.historyofwaronline.com/images/war1208.jpg

  8. A group of young congressmen from the South and the West, known as the warhawks, demanded war. http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-2_x-P6Z4NWY/Tj836QIOyKI/AAAAAAAAAfE/cGFAJNqf7mY/s1600/congress.jpg

  9. By the spring of 1812, President Madison had decided to commit America to war against British, and Congress approved the war declaration in mid-June. examiner.com

  10. Republican funding cuts and a lack of popular support had left the American military with few volunteers and ill-prepared for war. http://thetrustytory2.files.wordpress.com/2011/06/battleofqueenston.jpg

  11. Britain, however, was too preoccupied with Napoleon in Europe to pay much attention to the Americans. http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/david/st-bernard.jpg

  12. Nonetheless, the British scored a stunning victory in August of 1814, when they brushed aside American troops and sacked Washington, D.C.

  13. Madison and other federal officers fled the city as the British burned the Capitol, the Presidential Mansion, and other public buildings. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-67l-ivx-3fs/TjJAwmKhQ4I/AAAAAAAAAHE/MECWLMI8qR4/s1600/whitehouse_burning.jpg http://memory.loc.gov/service/pnp/cph/3a00000/3a05000/3a05600/3a05680r.jpg

  14. The most impressive American victory occurred at the Battle of New Orleans. http://www.history.army.mil/images/bookshelves/resmat/wo1812.jpg

  15. Ironically, British and American diplomats had already signed a peace agreement before the Battle of New Orleans, but the news of the pact had not reached Jackson in time. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/archive/3/35/20100121175118!Battle_of_New_Orleans.jpg http://lsm.crt.state.la.us/cabildo/cab6d.gif

  16. The Treaty of Ghent, signed on Christmas Eve, 1814, declared an armistice, or end to the fighting. http://war1812.tripod.com/ghent.GIF

  17. The war had three important consequences. First, it led to the end of the Federalist party, whose members generally opposed the war. http://www.xtimeline.com/__UserPic_Large/6434/ELT200803101903147464889.JPG

  18. Second, it encouraged the growth of American industries to manufacture products no longer available from Britain because of the war. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/wes/images/hc_engravings_textiles3_big.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/wes/collections/labor/textiles/popups/textile_mill.html&usg=__j4ajpywtWB6zV4szZYXNO0HZEgc=&h=373&w=500&sz=137&hl=en&start=1&zoom=1&tbnid=_MiT9ceqX_X2YM:&tbnh=97&tbnw=130&ei=GR6mTrS4DoGqsQL2wLW1Dw&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dearly%2Btextile%2Bmills%26hl%3Den%26gbv%3D2%26tbm%3Disch&itbs=1

  19. Third, it confirmed the status of the United States as a free and independent nation. http://www.mce.k12tn.net/revolutionary_war/spirit.jpg

  20. As with James Madison, foreign affairs dominated the first term of President James Monroe, who was elected in 1816. http://www.mssdar.org/jmonroe/images/jamesmonroeuse.jpg

  21. His secretary of state, John Quincy Adams, established a foreign policy based on nationalism, a belief that national interests should be placed ahead of regional concerns, such as slavery in the South or tariffs in the Northeast. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.aoc.gov/images/monroe.jpg&imgrefurl=http://americanpicturelinks.com/06ja.htm&usg=__4Rt0Em8PXYDytnpSxREF5R1J7gY=&h=442&w=520&sz=38&hl=en&start=12&zoom=1&tbnid=Fa8ibgZQdkpG2M:&tbnh=111&tbnw=131&ei=dB-mTpdVtKywAvHf1bkP&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsecretary%2Bof%2Bstate%2Bjohn%2Bquincy%2Badams%26hl%3Den%26gbv%3D2%26tbm%3Disch&itbs=1

  22. High on Adam’s list of national interests were the security of the nation and the expansion of its territory. http://www.usdiplomacy.org/exhibit/images/monroe.jpg

  23. Adams arranged the convention of 1818, which fixed the U.S. border at the 49th parallel from Michigan west to the Rocky Mountains. http://msmvps.com/cfs-filesystemfile.ashx/__key/CommunityServer.Blogs.Components.WeblogFiles/robfarley.TheproblemwithAmericaspatialdata_5F00_14EE8/image_5F00_3.png

  24. Adams also reached a compromise with Britain to jointly occupy the Oregon Territory, the territory west of the Rockies, for ten years. http://www.ushistory.org/us/images/00000411.jpg

  25. Adams also convinced Don Luis de Onis, the Spanish minister to the United States, to transfer Florida to the United States. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/bb/Luis_de_onis.jpg/230px-Luis_de_onis.jpg http://www.sonofthesouth.net/texas/pictures/florida-map-1500.jpg

  26. The Adams-Onis Treaty also established a western boundary for the U.S. that extended along the Sabine River from the Gulf of Mexico north to the Arkansas River to its source, and then north to the 42nd parallel, and west to the Pacific Ocean. http://mrcapwebpage.com/VCSUSHISTORY/adamsonistreaty.gif

  27. When Napoleon invaded Portugal and Spain in 1807, the two countries did not have the money or military force to both defend themselves and keep control of their overseas territories at the same time. http://img3.ranker.com/list_img/1/299087/full/a-list-of-the-napoleonic-wars-battles-involving-kingdom-of-portugal.jpg?version=1292516383000

  28. But when Napoleon was defeated in 1815, Portugal and Spain wanted to reclaim their former colonies in Latin America. http://jspivey.wikispaces.com/file/view/horse.gif/31492583/horse.gif

  29. Meanwhile, the Russians, who had been in Alaska since 1784, were establishing trading posts in what is now California. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/nhl/russian-america/images/fig8-7.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/nhl/russian-america/sec8.htm&usg=__VVzcUOnTvHFS3rPUKxgEv1TK0Mo=&h=286&w=450&sz=26&hl=en&start=4&zoom=1&tbnid=GX6fnqb4zTLsKM:&tbnh=81&tbnw=127&ei=VCamTp3SNa_ksQLquISsDw&prev=/images%3Fq%3Drussian%2Btrading%2Bpost%2Bnorth%2Bamerica%26hl%3Den%26gbv%3D2%26tbm%3Disch&itbs=1

  30. In 1821, Czar Alexander I of Russian claimed that Alaska’s southern boundary was the 51st parallel, just north of Vancouver Island. He forbade foreign vessels from using the coast north of this line. http://www.fortunecity.com/victorian/hornton/890/czar/alexander1.jpg http://www.reformation.org/en-czar-alexander1.jpg

  31. Many Americans were interested in acquiring northern Mexico and the Spanish colony of Cuba. Moreover, the Russian action posed a threat to American trade with China, which brought huge profits. http://www.worldjourneys.co.nz/admin/upload-images/packageMap-Viva!Mexico-Cuba.jpg

  32. Accordingly, in his 1823 message to Congress, President Monroe warned all European powers not to interfere with affairs in the Western Hemisphere. http://deskofbrian.com/wp-content/uploads/Monroe-Doctrine-cartoon.jpg

  33. They should not attempt to create new colonies, he said, or try to overthrow the newly independent republics in the hemisphere. http://hseuspics.wikispaces.com/file/view/SS4.JPG

  34. The U.S. would consider such action “dangerous to our peace and safety.” At the same time, the U.S. would not involve itself in European affairs or interfere with existing colonies in the Western Hemisphere. http://www.sms.rcs.k12.tn.us/TEACHERS/bryans/unit%2010%20jefferson_clip_image002.gif

  35. These principles became known as the Monroe Doctrine. The doctrine became a foundation for future American policy and represented an important step onto the world stage by the assertive young nation. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.aoc.gov/images/monroe.jpg&imgrefurl=http://americanpicturelinks.com/06ja.htm&usg=__4Rt0Em8PXYDytnpSxREF5R1J7gY=&h=442&w=520&sz=38&hl=en&start=12&zoom=1&tbnid=Fa8ibgZQdkpG2M:&tbnh=111&tbnw=131&ei=dB-mTpdVtKywAvHf1bkP&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsecretary%2Bof%2Bstate%2Bjohn%2Bquincy%2Badams%26hl%3Den%26gbv%3D2%26tbm%3Disch&itbs=1