Tomboys and sissies.... • Taylor Pugh: returned to pre-K with his hair in French braids.... • http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/12/17/taylor-pugh-4yearold-texa_n_395550.html
Tomboys and sissies.... • `My son is gay. Or he`s not. I don`t care. He is still my son. And he is 5. And I am his mother. And if you have a problem with anything mentioned above, I don’t want to know you.
Three levels of moral reasoning through which humans proceed: Pre-conventional Conventional Post-conventional levels 1973: Kohlberg’s Morality Scale
Kohlberg theorized that there is an inherited potential in each of us to recognize when we or others are being treated unfairly. The principle of justice. Kohlberg’s Moral Scale:
Kohlberg’s Moral Scale: • 1. Punishment and Obedience stage:Self-centeredness is the rule. Pleasure and pain are the way we judge experience..
Kohlberg’s Moral Scale: • 2. Instrumental Exchange: Negotiating trade-offs and deals comes into the picture.Still focused on the self, though.
Kohlberg’s Moral Scale: • 3. Interpersonal Conformity: Learning the norms and seeking out the approval of others.
Kohlberg’s Moral Scale: • 4. Social System and Conscience Maintenance: The approval of society is a priority. Following rules seems to be the best way.
Kohlberg’s Moral Scale: • 5. Prior Rights and Social Contract: Avoiding harm and doing good become the focus…even tryingto make the world a better place.
Kohlberg’s Moral Scale: • 6. Universal Ethical Principles: While obedience to social rules is important, the principles of universal justice always trump mere social rules. • Harriet Tubman
1. Individual Survival: Here the reasoning is limited strictly to concern for herself. T1. Transition from selfishness to responsibility. 1982: Gilligan’s ETHICS OF CARE
2. Self-Sacrifice and Social Conformity: At this stage there is an increased sense of responsibility and concern for others. T2. Transition From Goodness to truth. 1982: Gilligan`s ETHICS OF CARE
1982: Gilligan’s ETHICS OF CARE • 3. Morality of Nonviolence: Here the female does not feel powerless, but learns to "verify her capacity for individual judgment and the legitimacy of her own view."
Justice versus Caring • Male approaches favour the application of rules and rationality • Female approaches favour appeal to emotion
Justice versus Caring • Male approaches favour the application of rules and rationality • Female approaches favour appeal to emotion • But how true is this really?
But how true is this really? • Not entirely. But to the extent that it is...there are two explanations: • Socialization • Evolution
Nel Noddings • Caring as a foundation for ethical decision-making... • Building an ethical ideal.... • (the kind of person you want to be) • 1984 2002
Nel Noddings Distinction between • Caring for... • Caring about... • 1984
Nel Noddings • “[In my writing] I have brushed aside ‘caring about’....It is too easy. I can ‘care about’ the starving children of Cambodia, send five dollars to hunger relief, and feel somewhat satisfied.....This is a poor second cousin to ‘caring for.’”
11.2: Implications for moral judgement... • Family and friends: • Children with HIV: • Animals:
Franke James To my future grandkids in 2020