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Unit 1 Civil War Divides a Nation. Chapter 2 War & Reconstruction. L1-Early Stages of the Civil War. North – Fighting to preserve the Union Northern advantages: more supplies, food, iron more RR, canals, roads more money more States and people.

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unit 1 civil war divides a nation

Unit 1Civil War Divides a Nation

Chapter 2

War & Reconstruction

l1 early stages of the civil war
L1-Early Stages of the Civil War

North – Fighting to preserve the Union

Northern advantages:

more supplies, food, iron

more RR, canals, roads

more money

more States and people

South – Fighting to preserve own way of life, which included slaves.

Southern advantages:

rural life

familiar with weapons

Mexican War vets

fought on own territory

north s strategies
North’s Strategies
  • Scott’s Anaconda Plan

a. Blockade of Atlantic and Gulf coasts.

b. Capture land along the Mississippi River to cut the South in two.

c. Strike the Confederacy from the east and west.

south s strategies
South’s Strategies
  • Had only to defend own land until North gives up.
  • Would fight harder because it was their own land, homes, families, and way of life that was in danger.
  • England would help because they wanted the South’s cotton.
early battles
Early Battles

Confederate Victory

Union Victory

First Battle of Bull Run near Manassas Junction, Virginia, won by Confederate General Thomas StonewallJackson.

  • Battle of Antietam

in Maryland, lost by Confederate General Robert E. Lee.

technology and war
Technology and War
  • Better rifles
  • Confederate Submarines
  • Hand grenades
  • Ironclad ships: Virginia versus Monitor
  • Photography
  • Medical knowledge limited.
l2 life during the war
L2-Life During the War
  • Both sides started draft.
  • Confederate who owned 20 slaves could avoid draft.
  • Union could pay $300 to avoid the draft.
  • Average age was 25; some 12 year olds.
  • On foot; carrying supplies.
  • Poor food: hardtack.
  • Disease and infection.
emancipation proclamation 1863
Emancipation Proclamation - 1863
  • Lincoln: “Slavery must die that the nation might live.”
  • Emancipate = to set free
  • Proclaim = to state or say
  • “Slaves within any State… in rebellion against the United States, shall be then…and forever free.”
african americans in the civil war
African Americans in the Civil War
  • Could not join until the Emancipation Proclamation, but did help the Union as cooks or servants.
  • Frederick Douglass: “Fly to arms.”
  • Not given equal pay or uniforms.
  • 54th Colored Regiment; outstanding bravery.
  • 200,000 fought.
women in the civil war
Women in the Civil War
  • Ran farms and businesses while husbands were gone.
  • Frances Clalin; dressed as a man to join the Union.
  • Belle Boyd; famous Confederate spy.
  • Clara Barton: nurse named ‘Angel of the Battlefield,’ Red Cross.
l3 how the north won 1 st battle that turned the tide
L3–How the North Won;1st Battle that Turned the Tide.

Battle of Gettysburg, PA

  • Led by General Lee and General Pickett, who had to retreat to Virginia.
  • Lincoln gives “The Gettysburg Address.”
  • Becomes a national cemetery.
2 nd battle that turned the tide
2nd Battle that Turned the Tide

Battle of Vicksburg, MS

  • Blockade by Union General Ulysses S. Grant.
  • Confederates surrender after 48 days.
3 rd battle that turns the tide
3rd Battle that Turns the Tide

March to the Sea

  • Led by Union General William Tecumseh Sherman.
  • Total War
  • Atlanta, GA to Savannah, GA
  • 300 miles long/60 miles wide
civil war 1861 1864
Civil War 1861-1864
  • Lee said, “There is nothing left for me to do but go and see General Grant, and I would rather die a thousand deaths.”
  • Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia.
  • Grant said, “The war is over; the rebels are our countrymen again.”
  • Lives lost: 620,000 soldiers
  • Destruction: farms, towns, industries, families torn apart.
l4 the end of slavery
L4-The End of Slavery
  • Assassination of Lincoln by John Wilkes Booth.
  • Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes president.
lincoln s johnson s reconstruction plans
Lincoln’s & Johnson’s Reconstruction Plans
  • 13th Amendment – abolished slavery in 1865.
  • Readmit Confederate States into the Union.
  • Had to uphold federal government, form new state government, but Johnson allowed black codes; laws to control former slaves.
  • Johnson almost impeached.
congress reconstruction plans
Congress’ Reconstruction Plans
  • South divided into 5 military zones.
  • Freedman’s Bureau started to help former slaves with education & health.
  • 14th Amendment – citizenship for African Americans.
  • 15th Amendment – All males could vote.
  • Carpetbaggers/Scalawags
  • Ku Klux Klan
reconstruction ends 1870
Reconstruction Ends - 1870
  • Not a complete success.
  • Poll Tax started; citizens had to pay to vote.
  • Had to be able to read to vote.
  • Jim Crow laws; enforced segregation or separation of blacks and whites.
  • Trapped into sharecropping.
  • Westward expansion continues.