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Chapter 4 Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation

Chapter 4 Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation

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Chapter 4 Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation

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  1. Chapter 4Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation Elemental Geosystems 5e Robert W. Christopherson Charles E. Thomsen

  2. Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation • Wind Essentials   • Driving Forces Within the Atmosphere   • Atmospheric Patterns of Motion   • Oceanic Currents  

  3. Wind Essentials • Air Pressure and Its Measurement   • Wind: Description and Measurement   • Global Winds  

  4. Barometers Figure 4.2

  5. Air Pressure Readings Figure 4.3

  6. Wind Vane and Anemometer Figure 4.4

  7. Wind Portrait of the Pacific Ocean Figure 4.6

  8. Driving Forces Within the Atmosphere   • Pressure Gradient Force   • Coriolis Force   • Friction Force  

  9. Pressure Gradient Figure 4.7

  10. Pressure + Coriolis + Friction =Wind Figure 4.8

  11. Coriolis Force Figure 4.9

  12. 500-mb Pressure Map Figure 4.10

  13. Atmospheric Patterns of Motion   • Primary High-Pressure and Low-Pressure Areas   • Upper Atmospheric Circulation   • Multi-year Oscillations in Global Circulation • Local Winds   • Monsoonal winds  

  14. Global Barometric Pressure Figure 4.11a

  15. Global Barometric Pressure Figure 4.11b

  16. Primary High-Pressure and Low-Pressure Areas • Equatorial Low-Pressure Trough • Polar High-Pressure Cells • Subtropical High-Pressure Cells • Subpolar Low-Pressure Cells

  17. Subtropical High-Pressure Cells • Westerlies • Bermuda High • Azores High • Pacific High Figure 4.14

  18. General Atmospheric Circulation Figure 4.13a

  19. General Atmospheric Circulation Figure 4.13b

  20. Rossby Waves Figure 4.16

  21. Jet Streams Figure 4.17

  22. Local Winds • Land-Sea Breezes • Mountain-Valley Breezes • Katabatic Winds

  23. Land-Sea Breezes Figure 4.18

  24. Mountain-Valley Breezes Figure 4.19

  25. The Asian Monsoon Figure 4.20

  26. Oceanic Currents • Surface Currents   • Upwelling and Downwelling Flows • Thermohaline Circulation―The Deep Currents  

  27. Major Ocean Currents Figure 4.21

  28. Pacific Ocean Currents Figure 4.3.1

  29. ThermohalineCirculation Figure 4.22

  30. End of Chapter 4 Elemental Geosystems 5e Robert W. Christopherson Charlie Thomsen