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A Wireless Internet 101. Presented at CommunicAsia 20th June 2001 Immo Hüneke Technical Architect, Wireless Internet. What is the Internet?. The Web and more… Personal Communication (e-mail, instant messaging…) Source of Information Provider of Entertainment Personal Soapbox

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a wireless internet 101

A Wireless Internet 101

Presented at CommunicAsia 20th June 2001

Immo Hüneke

Technical Architect, Wireless Internet

what is the internet
What is the Internet?
  • The Web and more…
  • Personal Communication(e-mail, instant messaging…)
  • Source of Information
  • Provider of Entertainment
  • Personal Soapbox
  • Medium for Advertising and Promotions
  • A Place to do Business
  • Standards Based
  • Seamless
  • Global

A Wireless Internet 101

is the wireless internet a hoax
Is the wireless Internet a hoax?
  • Why WAP didn’t overwhelm the world
    • Slow to connect (via GSM Circuit-Switched Data – CSD)
    • Slow to load pages
    • Limited display capabilities
    • No sound or colour
    • Lack of standardisation leading to many unusable sites
    • Lock-in by operators (“walled gardens”)
  • Nevertheless, useful services exist
    • …just as long as you don’t expect them to resemble the wired Web surfing experience!

A Wireless Internet 101

wireless internet usp
Wireless Internet USP
  • The Unique Selling Propositions of the wireless Internet
    • Ubiquity
    • Immediacy
    • Location sensitivity
    • Personalisation
    • One-on-one medium
      • Mobile device is virtually an extension of the individual
      • Ideal for highly targeted marketing and mobile commerce
  • So – how is it going to be done?

A Wireless Internet 101

wireless internet architecture

Handset

Mobile Network

The Internet

Wireless Internet Architecture

Applications / Services

Hand-sets

Personal Digital Assist-ants (PDAs)

Note-books and Laptops

Misc plug-ins

WML Browser

Java

Content Representations

HTML/XHTML/

Protocols

WAP

HTTP

TCP/IP

Bearer Services

GPRS

CSD

Networks

A Wireless Internet 101

some unwired networks
Public Wireless Data Networks

Packet Radio – BellSouth Mobile Data, RAM Mobile Data ...

Paging – many and various

Public Mobile Telephone Networks

GSM-900, GSM-1800, GSM-1900, GSM-800

CDMA – IS-95

TDMA – IS-41, IS-136

Satellite – GlobalStar, Iridium, ECO…

3G systems – IMT-2000, UMTS, W-CDMA, Wideband IS-95

Emergency Services & Military – Tetra, Spread Spectrum ...

Computing Device Networks

Wireless LAN – 802.11, HiperLAN, AirPort ...

Bluetooth 1.1 and later

Hot Sync Cradle

Some Unwired Networks

A Wireless Internet 101

bearer services
Data over voice circuits

Circuit Switched Data (CSD)

High-Speed CSD (HSCSD)

IS-135

Data over signalling networks

Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD)

Short Message Service (SMS)

Data over packet-switched data networks

Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD)

i-mode packet datagram

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)

Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE)

3G Data bearer service – “ALL-IP”

Bearer Services

A Wireless Internet 101

protocols
Application Layer

Text messaging

OTAP etc.

SMTP

RMI

WAP

HTTP

Streaming – Packet Video etc.

Transport Layer

SMS

X.25

TCP

UDP

Link / Network Layers

IP

Packet Datagram Protocol (PDP)

Coming soon: Mobile IP / IPv6

Protocols

A Wireless Internet 101

content representations
Web and e-mail

Plain Text

HTML

MIME

Micro device markup languages

HDML

cHTML

WML

Image, audio and multi-media

Multimedia SMS extensions

WBMP, GIF, JPEG, PNG

MP3, Flash

RealMedia ...

Mobile code – Java .class, .jar ...

Non-representational formats

SQL

XML

MDML

Content Representations

A Wireless Internet 101

applications services
Communication

e-mail

Instant messaging, multimedia messaging

Information – including personalised, localised

News, sport, weather, transport and travel, “where is the nearest”

Entertainment

Betting and Gaming, multi-player games, music, characters

Shopping

Online banking, stock portfolio

Taxi booking, ordering pizza, flowers direct, travel / event tickets

Extension of the Enterprise into the mobile space

Verticals (loads of them) e.g. estate agency

Imagination is the limit!

Applications / Services

A Wireless Internet 101

types of mobile data device
Types of mobile data device
  • Laptop PC
  • Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
  • Mobile Phone
  • Pager
  • Wearable
  • Dedicated (e.g. vehicle tracker)

A Wireless Internet 101

challenges
Challenges
  • Special challenges that have to be overcome to deliver the wireless USP:
    • Issues for Consumers
    • Issues for Corporates
    • Issues for Service Providers
    • Issues for Content Providers
    • Issues for Network Providers
    • Issues for Regulators (not considered further here)

A Wireless Internet 101

issues for consumers and corporates
Issues for Consumers and Corporates
  • Cost and usefulness of service
  • Convenience
  • Handset usability, battery life
  • Ease of use
  • Reliability, coverage
  • Quality of service
  • Security!
  • Convenient billing and payment
  • Lifestyle

A Wireless Internet 101

issues for service providers and network operators
Issues for Service Providers and Network Operators
  • Business models
  • Payment options
  • Usage metering
  • How to maximise ARPU
  • Service levels
  • Managing service evolution
  • Disintermediation and re-intermediation: the provider tangle
  • How can we trust each other

A Wireless Internet 101

technology changes business rules
The need to use tariff models to deter wasteful usage

Huge telco profits lead to impoverished users, particularly among the under-25 age group, which leads to political regulation

Telcos find it hard to profit from packet transport, so moving to charging for content, services, and mobile commerce

Carving out a niche in micro-payment banking services (consumers need banking services, but not necessarily banks)

Technology Changes Business Rules

A Wireless Internet 101

key messages
Key messages

Things to bear in mind during the remaining presentations:

  • Keep it real
  • Maximise return on investment
  • Concentrate on end-to-end solutions

A Wireless Internet 101

it s all about end to end solutions

Personal Area

Network

Access Network

Core Network

Hosting Centre

It’s All About End-to-End Solutions...
  • Wireline
  • Static Wireless
  • Mobile Wireless
  • In-Home

Service Providers

Content Providers

Terminals

mobile applications framework reference architecture

GPRS / mobile

Network

Access Layer

WAP Gateway & mobile portal

Communication

Information

Entertainment

Shopping

Baseline

Applications & Services

(Service Layer)

Content

Events

Datausage

FinancialTransactions

Business

Framework

(Services Fulfilment Layer)

Provisioning, Management, Security...

GPRS Mediation

Secure financial

server

GPRS & IP

Billing

System

Intranet

Internet

Partner

Accounting &

Settlements

Pre-pay

SGSN

GGSN

Business Layer

Mobile Applications Framework - Reference Architecture

E-mail

Messaging

Sports Results

Gambling

Pre-pay Top-up

Greeting Cards

Phone book

Local Events

Tickets

Mobile ATM

A Wireless Internet 101

access layer
Access Layer

Access Layer

Applications & Service Layer

Fulfilment & Business Layers

A Wireless Internet 101

the personalised portal

The Corporates

Games,

multiplayer

games

Voice

Mail

Corporate

Services

Intranet

Access

Applications

Integration

Location-

specific

services

SMS

Unified Messaging

The Consumers

Fax

Serviceenquiries

Self-provisioning

Text to

Speech

Profiled

news, shares

e-commerce

“Wireless

Internet”

Access

Email

Suppliedas if withinthe Operator’s network

The Personalised Portal

A Wireless Internet 101

applications and service layer
Applications and Service Layer

Access Layer

Applications & Service Layer

Fulfilment & Business Layers

A Wireless Internet 101

wap gprs and alternatives
GSM provides PPP over CSD – pick your own ISP!

Packet Datagram Protocol (PDP) on air-side

IP protocols, SMS and X.25 “tunnel” through GPRS backbone network (which is itself IP based)

WAP is an application-level protocol like HTTP: it can be used over GSM data calls, GPRS, UMTS…

But other protocols may be more appropriate, particularly at higher bit rates (GPRS, EDGE, UMTS, wCDMA) – BlueKite, i-mode...

Ubiquitous availability of SMS and USSD may make these more attractive than WAP (WAP layered on these protocols is defined but not implemented)

WAP, GPRS and alternatives

A Wireless Internet 101

requirements for application development deployment
Requirements for Application Development & Deployment

“An extensible, unified, implementation infrastructure for

Wireless Internet application development and deployment”

Goals:

  • Support Rapid Application Development
    • Prototype, trial, deploy, customise
  • Content must be easy to publish
    • Tailored for the wireless environment
    • Extensible content format though XML
  • Delivery channel independence
    • Easy to add new target devices such as iMode and Interactive TV
    • Applications should be able to exploit device capabilities
  • Scalable, Portable, Managed

A Wireless Internet 101

application overview
Application Overview

application

GET/POST

request

Response

(XML data)

Web interface (HTTP)

network

Technology Adapter (TA)

Technology-specific

interface

A Wireless Internet 101

technology adapter ta
Technology Adapter (TA)
  • Handles interactions with mobile devices
  • Acts as a HTTP User Agent (UA)
  • Generates requests to applications
  • Converts XML responses into technology-specific formats
  • Manages sessions and mobile identity

A Wireless Internet 101

micro device markup language mdml
Micro-device Markup Language (MDML)
  • Defines XML formats for mobile content
  • Contains XML elements for
    • Text, lists, menus, forms
    • Keypad support
    • Graphics and sound
    • Billing, advertising and transactions
    • Embedded XML – WML, XHTML...
  • Designed to provide content only, must be re-formatted or transcoded before presentation to user.

A Wireless Internet 101

simple m world application

SMS

WAP

Web Server

Simple m-World Application

A Wireless Internet 101

more channels

Application Server

SMS

WAP

HTML

USSD

More Channels

A Wireless Internet 101

multi services fully managed personalised portal

Billing

Access Mgr.

m-Commerce

Application Server

Application Server

SMS

WAP

HTML

USSD

Web Server

Multi-Services – fully managed personalised portal

m-World™

Portal

A Wireless Internet 101

applications framework architecture overview
Applications Framework – Architecture Overview

Portal

Input

m-Commerce

Application

Adapter

Server

MicroWeb

m-World™

API

Web

Output

JSP

Device Context

Server

Adapter

Billing

Access Mgr.

XML

ApplicationContext

Location Context

Adaption

Services

Application

A Wireless Internet 101

adaption layer

Input

Adapter

Output

Device Context

Adapter

Application Context

Location Context

Adaption

Adaption Layer
  • Made up of several Technology Adapters
  • A Technology Adapter is deployed for each class of target device (SMS, WAP, HTML) to be used

A Wireless Internet 101

technology adapters

Input

Adapter

Output

Device Context

Adapter

Application Context

Location Context

Adaption

Technology Adapters
  • Manages context for individual device
  • Converts input into a micro-web request using:
    • Input data
    • Device context
    • Application context
  • Adds user and location context to each request
  • Translates responses into device specific format using:
    • Response data
    • Device context
    • Application context

A Wireless Internet 101

service layer

Billing

Subscription

MicroWeb

Services

Adapter

Routing

Register

Service

Service Layer
  • Controls access to MicroWeb applications
  • Handles user subscriptions and billing
  • Splits-up and routes responses according to:
    • Technology Adaptor capabilities
    • Content attributes
    • User-specified rules

A Wireless Internet 101

service layer1

Billing

Subscription

MicroWeb

Services

Adapter

Routing

Register

Service

Service Layer
  • An open interface allowing integration of your services
  • Manages register of:
    • Adaptor capabilities
    • Currently accessible adapters for each user
  • Provides services to all applications
    • m-Commerce
    • Personalisation
    • Content Routing
    • Access Management

A Wireless Internet 101

application layer
Application Layer

Any combination of

  • Static XML Content
  • Dynamic Content
    • JSP
    • Database access
  • Custom Applications
    • Use MicroWeb API and HTTP
    • More Complex Interactions

Application

Server

MicroWeb

API

Web

JSP

Server

XML

Application

A Wireless Internet 101

applications framework business drivers
Applications Framework– Business Drivers
  • Modular and Extensible
  • Reduce deployment risk
    • We develop the channel side technology allowing you to concentrate on applications and service development
  • Protect Investment
    • Services deployed using existing technologies will instantly be available via new channels as we develop new Technology Adapters

A Wireless Internet 101

business drivers continued
Business Drivers (continued)
  • Reduce technology dependence
    • No longer: “We’ll deploy a WAP and SMS lottery service”
    • But: “Let’s have a lottery service. We have WAP and SMS channels.”
  • Contemporary development architecture
    • Access to the large ‘Internet Developer’ skills base
    • Minimises development and testing schedules
  • Network Differentiation
    • Services Layer allows you to deploy distinctive services that benefit application providers

A Wireless Internet 101

applications framework summary
Applications Framework– Summary
  • Delivers the same XML content to a range of mobile devices
  • Facilitates rapid service evolution and deployment
  • Allows you to concentrate on the service, not on the mobile device specifics
  • Provides support for new target devices with off-the-shelf components
fulfilment and business layers
Fulfilment and Business Layers

Access Layer

Applications & Service Layer

Fulfilment & Business Layers

A Wireless Internet 101

mobile applications financial transactions model

Access

Events

Fulfilment

Secure

m-Commerce

Server

Encryption

PIN

Link to

back-end systems

“Off Network”

Application Server

“On Network”

IP Billing system

Real-time Credit Check

On the Phone Bill

Real-time Credit Check

Bank Account

Credit/Debit Card

“Off Network”

Banking /Visa

Networks

Positive

Confirmation

SMS / E-mail

Event CDR

Apportionment

GPRS/IP Billing System

Accounting & Settlement

Mobile Applications– Financial Transactions Model

Apps

Stocks

Content

Taxi

Tickets

Tickets

Bills

Pre-Pay

A Wireless Internet 101

what is your business model

Interconnect payment

Traffic

payment

Wholesale

Fee

Network

Operator

Purchases

- On phone bill

- Banking System

Another Operator

Advertiser

Financial

Transaction

Advertising Expenditure

Handling

Fee

Content

payment

Content

payment

Information

- “Free”: drive txn

- Chargeable

What is your Business Model?

Is it communications, content or commerce?

Data Services Revenue Flows

A Wireless Internet 101

gprs billing screen shot from infranet portal billing

“Pipe” Usage

Purchase

Content

GPRS Billing - Screen Shot from Infranet (Portal Billing)

All on one bill in real-time

A Wireless Internet 101

the case for e commerce transactions
The Case for E-commerce Transactions

GPRS Services 61.12

GPRS Usage 0.17

Total 61.29

A Wireless Internet 101

mobile applications framework example implementation

Voice Stream

Data Stream

GSM

WAP Gateway

m-World

Portal

GSM

Operator’s

IP Backbone

GPRS

GPRS

Usage

Voice

Mediation

Financial Transactions

Content Events

CDRs

Smart Mediator

m-Commerce

Server

Event CDR

Collection

Voice

Billing

Journal

Transactions, Accounting & Settlement

Portal Infra-net (Realtime Billing)

Aethos(Pre-Pay)

Unified Bill

View billing data in real time

Service providers

Consumers

Mobile Applications Framework - ExampleImplementation

Business

Directory

3rd-Party

Apps

Mobile

Banking

Dining

Out

Mobile

Travel

Cinema

Tickets

Shares

& News

Operat-or Apps

A Wireless Internet 101

conclusions
Conclusions
  • The Wireless Internet is here today.
    • More than just WAP – i-mode, USSD and SMS are viable now
  • Information targeted specifically at the needs of wireless users will succeed.
  • Think about architecture: go for an end-to-end solution.
  • Think about service development: address the needs of today’s users.
  • Formulate a revenue strategy: put systems in place to implement it.

A Wireless Internet 101

thank you
Thank You!

Logica

Stephenson House

75 Hampstead Road

London NW1 2PL

United Kingdom

direct +44 20 7446 1653

fax +44 20 7446 1832mobile +44 7941 072 238

email HunekeI@logica.comwww.logica.com/telecoms

Immo Hüneke

Technical Architect

Wireless Internet

logica

A Wireless Internet 101