RELATIVE CLAUSES (Adjective Clauses). Relative clauses are introduced by relative pronouns – that, which, who, whom, and whose. They have the same function as adjectives, and for this reason are sometimes called adjective clauses . . Form and Functions. Art Adj Adj Head Noun
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RELATIVE CLAUSES (Adjective Clauses) • Relative clauses are introduced by relative pronouns – that, which, who, whom, and whose. They have the same function as adjectives, and for this reason are sometimes called adjective clauses.
Form and Functions Art AdjAdj Head Noun • a difficult and perplexing problem Art Head Noun Relative Clause • a problem [that is difficult and perplexing] Note: The noun phrase modified can be a subject, object, indirect object, or object of a preposition.
Restrictive versus Non-Restrictive Relative Clauses Restrictive My sister who lives in Canada is a biologist. (Which of your sisters is a biologist?) - identifies the noun it modifies Non-restrictive My sister, who lives in Canada, is a biologist. (new information about the noun modified)
Relative Pronouns • That for humans and inanimate things • Who and Whom for humans • Which for inanimate things • Whose Possessive form for humans and inanimate things
Restrictive Relative Clauses 1. Subject (S) Relative Clauses The clause that is introduced by who, that, or which replaces the subject of the clause • The guy [who/that hired Robert] was the manager of the company. • The tornado [that/which struck the town] destroyed several houses.
Restrictive Relative Clauses 2. Object (O) Relative Clauses The clause that is introduced by who, that, or which replaces the object of the clause • At the party, there were many people [whom/who/that he didn’t know]. • The car [which/that Ted bought] has a very powerful engine.
Restrictive Relative Clauses 3. Indirect Object (IO) Relative Clauses Limited to to and for Two patterns are possible: • The girl [who/that we gave the candy to] is Fred’s sister. (whom is seldom used) • The student [for whom Alice baked a cake] is my roommate. (no who and that)
Restrictive Relative Clauses 4. Object of the Preposition (OP) Relative Clauses • The mattress [which/that he slept on] had several broken springs. • The people [who/that he aimed his weapon at] were very frightened. • The mattress [on which he slept] had several broken springs. (written English) • The people [at whom he aimed his weapon] were very frightened. (written English)
4. Object of the Preposition (OP) Relative Clauses cont. When way or manner is the object of the preposition in, the preposition must be moved. • The manner in which he spoke was shocking. • *The manner which he spoke in was shocking.
4. Object of the Preposition (OP) Relative Clauses cont. Most phrasal prepositional verbs don’t permit the elements following the verb to be moved: • Rudeness is an issue which we will not put up with. • * Rudeness is an issue up with which we will not put.
Restrictive Relative Clauses 5. Possessive (POS) Relative Clauses a) POS Relative Clauses Introduced by whose: • Last week I met a girl whose brother works in your company. • The author several of whose books Peter reviewed won a Nobel Prize.
5. Possessive (POS) Relative Clauses cont. b) POS Relative Clauses Introduced by of which: • The reports which the government prescribes the size of are boring. • The reports of which the government prescribes the size are boring. • The reports the size of which the government prescribes are boring.
Restrictive Relative Clauses 6. Object of Comparison (OC) Relative Clauses Who, whom, that, or which replaces an NP following the comparative conjunction than • The girl who/whom/that Suzan was faster than won the 100 meter dash.
Additional Facts about RRC • What as a Relative Pronoun Do you see that truck what just went by? -Non-Standard English -More common in British English • Resumptive Pronouns * Usually they give you a thing…, you know , a thing that you don’t want it.
Extraposed • ExtraposedRRC do not always appear directly after the head noun they modify. They are moved away from the head noun. • A man who has red hair just came in. • A man just came in who has red hair.
RRC that are separated from the NP by a single word (adverbs) • I saw someone who I hadn't seen for years yesterday. adverb • I saw someone yesterday who I hadn't seen for years.
RRC separated by Main Verbs Something that I can’t really talk about happened. main verb • Something happened that I can't really talked about.
Restrictions of RRC • A relative clause can not be moved into a position in which it originated, that is, another noun because it changes the meaning of the sentence. • A pole that must have been nine feet tall fell on a workman. • A pole fell on a workman that must have been nine feet tall.
Stacking When two clauses are strung together it is called stacking. The people [who take the course] [ who Dana likes] usually come from local high schools. (writing) The book [that I like] [which everyone else in class hates] was written by Joan Didion.(conversation)
Omission of Nonsubject Relative Pronouns The omission of the Relative pronoun is possible in any Object relative except S RC. object • We just met that woman [who/whom/that Alan likes so much]. subject • *We just met that woman [that/who likes Alan].
Object of Comparison Relative • In all types of clauses except S relative clauses, it is possible to delete the relative pronoun, with the relative clause thus beginning with the subject NP or “Zero R pronoun). • The sports car which/that the Alpha Romeo was faster than won the Le Mans 24-hour race.
Possessive Objective relative Clauses (POS) • Which POS relatives with stranded prepositions can be reduced. • The reports which the government prescribes the size of are boring. Whose POS relatives with stranded prepositions cannot be reduced. • Last week I met a girl whose brother works in your law firm. • *Last week I met a girl brother works in your law firm.
Reductions in Subject Relative Clauses • In S relative clauses, the relative pronoun and the form of be may be deleted, when they are followed by: • Present participle: That man who is standing over there knows the Prime Minister. • The man standing over there knows the Prime Minister. • Past participle in a passive sentence: The bills that were passed by the House yesterday died in the Senate.
Reductions in Subject Relative Clauses • Adjective followed by a prepositional phrases: • Senators who are familiar with details of the proposal believe that it has a good chance passing. • Senators familiar with details of the proposal believe that it has a good chance of passing. • Past participial adjective: • He is considered to be a prophet who is descended from heaven. • He is considered to be a prophet descended from heaven.
Activity • Describe what you think each doodle illustration, using the relative clause structure. • For example: This first picture looks like a mother pyramid feeding its baby, but if you look closely you can see that it could also be a ship arriving too late to save a drowning witch. • Every doodle must depict something that can be expressed in a reduced relative clause structure.
Doodles Every doodle must depict something that can be expressed in a reduced relative clause structure.
Other Types of Restrictive Relative Clauses Infinitival (INFIN) Relative Clauses Have undergone relative pronoun deletion • Here is a chair to sit on.(Here is a chair on which to sit) *Here is a chair which to sit on. • John is not the correct person to confide in. (John is not the right person in whom to confide.)
Adverbial (ADV) Relative Clauses Nouns that denote a place, a time, or a purpose may be followed by OP Relative Clauses • That’s the gas station at which I’m working now. • How well I remember the day on which he was born. • I have forgotten the reasons for which the trust fund was established.
Free Relative Clauses Stand alone rather than following and modifying a head noun. a)Definite Free Relatives are introduced by what, where, and when. • He eats what he orders. • Alice goes where she wants to go. • They applauded when he stopped playing.
b) Indefinite Free Relatives introduced by who(m)ever, whichever, whatever, wherever, and whenever. • He eats whatever she offers him. • Joan dances with whoever asks her to dance.
Nonrestrictive Relative Clauses video link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZnXU2B2j94Ufeature=youtube_gdata_player
Nonrestrictive Relative Clauses • Are clauses that merely add information about the nouns they modify. • In writing they are set off by punctuation: When a nonrestrictive clause appears in the middle of a sentence, place commas around it. When a nonrestrictive clause appears at the end of a sentence, place a comma before it and a period after it. Do not punctuate restrictive clauses! • The credit card is in my wallet, which you can find in the kitchen drawer. • The store honored the complaints, which were less than 60 days old.
In speech they are set off by passes an falling intonation at the end of the clause. Modification of proper nouns • a) John, who is a linguist, was not impressed by Professor Rosas' argument. • b)* John who is a linguist was not impressed by professor Rosas' argument.
Nonrestrictive RC cannot • Modify any, every, infinite pronouns such as anyone, everyone, or no one. • a) *Any man, who goes back on his word, is no friend of mine. • b) Any man who goes back on his word is no friend of mine. • Cannot be introduced by that. • a) *The plan, that we discussed yesterday, will be adopted. • b) the plan that we discussed yesterday will be adopted.
Nonrestrictive RC cannot • be stacked because it results in ungrammatical sentences. • a) *They gave the job to Rob, who is qualified, who starts next month. • b) I really like that car that you have that your wife is always zipping around town in.
Reduction is not possible in Relative Pronouns NRR Clauses • Deletion of the relative pronoun results in an ungrammatical sentence. • a)The thief, who(m) they finally managed to apprehend, was so frightened that he could hardly speak. • b)*The thief, they finally managed to apprehend, was so frightened that he could hardly speak.