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2003 Georgia Tech Fault Disturbance Analysis Conference

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    1. 1 2003 Georgia Tech Fault & Disturbance Analysis Conference Upgrading DFR Systems by Robert Baldwin Southern California Edison

    2. 2 Overview of Paper History of DFR applications at Southern California Edison (SCE) Requirements for New Technology DFRs Identify need to replace First Generation DFRs Sample Event Recordings Staffing needs for DFR replacement program

    3. 3 History of DFRs at SCE Before 1980s -- magnetic drum, ink-type, and light beam oscillographs at SCE 1985 to 1990 -- SCE replaces its early fault recording systems with first generation DFRs 2001 -- SCE begins a ten-year program to replace its first generation DFRs with newer technology DFRs

    4. 4 First Generation DFRs at SCE Event storage capability at remote DFR Modem communications used for retrieval of event records from remotely located DFRs Printed event records very similar to those provided by early fault recorders Event analysis tools available at DFR Master Station computer (ex. Sequence components)

    5. 5 Some Limitations of First Generation DFRs Applied at SCE Static RAM storage of events at DFR No Hard Disk Units (HDUs) at DFR Communications to remote DFR by modem, only Event records available for printing and analysis at DFR Master Station computer, only

    6. 6 Requirements for new technology DFRs to be applied at SCE Industry-recognized leader in the development of highly reliable DFR systems Open access to DFRs (no single DFR Master Station required) Ethernet communication available Reliable high-speed modem communications Multiple recording speeds within same DFR Long-Term event storage technology

    7. 7 Requirements for new technology DFRs to be applied at SCE (contd) Extensive, yet simple to use DFR Analysis software Integrated database for management of event recordings Auto-export records in Comtrade format Import Comtrade records Sequence-of-Event (SOE) view Selectable event recording initiation from all analog and digital input channels

    8. 8 Need to Replace First Generation DFRs at SCE DFRs considered to be a necessity Transformer failure events Non-volatile storage of event data Increase reliability of communications to DFRs Record database capability Open the access to DFR event recordings Ethernet communications to remote DFRs Sequence of event record viewing

    9. 9 SCE Considers DFRs Necessary Reduced staffing in 1990s More work with less people Loss of key personnel Knowledge of past practices Measure system performance Relays, circuit breakers, etc.

    10. 10 Transformer Failure Events at Stations with First Generation DFRs Two major power transformer failures Resulting oil fire at both substations Damage to each stations control cables DFRs recorded initial event DFRs limited static RAM storage of resulted in no event records after a few seconds Lost event data due to loss of station DC system

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    12. 12 Transformer Failure Event at Station with New Technology DFR Major power transformer failure Resulting oil fire at substation Damage to stations control cables DFR recorded all event data DFRs Hard Disk Unit (HDU) stored all event data, allowing access to event records when stations DC system was restored

    13. 13 Non-Volatile Storage of Event Data August 10, 1996 WSCC System Disturbance Event lasted well over a minutes time First generation DFRs static RAM were filled to capacity and then stopped recording Limited data captured at station DFRs Much of the event data was lost

    14. 14 Non-Volatile Storage of Event Data (contd) Availability of HDU in new technology DFR HDU offers immediate storage of event data at DFR, allowing DFRs static RAM to continue recording in real-time HDU continues to store event data during DFR communication outages

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    16. 16 Increased Reliability of Communications to DFRs Modem initialization problems with first generation DFRs Troubleshooting communication outages related to the DFRs modem line New technology DFRs offer logging features Date and time stamp Type of error at DFR

    17. 17

    18. 18 Record Database Capabilities Older records retrieved from first generation DFRs Limited search capabilities in first generation Master Station software New technology DFRs offer built-in database search engines Date and time Event type Size of event record Etc.

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    20. 20 Access to DFR Event Recordings Limited access to first generation DFRs New technology DFRs allow many users access to event recording data Event data more readily available to people making system restoration decisions Grid Dispatch & Operations Protection Staff Apparatus Staff Etc.

    21. 21 Ethernet Communications to DFRs Reduce time spent with DFRs Retrieval of event recordings Revise DFRs trigger/sensor parameters Revise channel parameters

    22. 22 Sequence of Event (SOE) Viewing of Event Recordings Extracting data from past system events captured by first generation DFRs very tedious task New technology DFRs offer SOE view of event data Time stamp Normal/abnormal indication Channel initiation

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    24. 24 Sample Event Recordings Transient record (6000 Hz sampling rate) Slow-Speed record (60 Hz sampling rate) Continuous record (20 Hz sampling rate) Use of Calculated Channel Negative sequence overvoltage trigger/sensor

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    29. 29 Staffing Considerations Items to be Addressed Channel count (analogs and/or digitals) Retro-fit or complete replacement Station electrical drawing revisions Power system quantities of interest Acceptable trigger/sensor levels Maximum recording time intervals Coordination of project to replace first generation DFRs

    30. 30 Staffing Considerations (contd) Senior Team Players Lead Protection Engineer Area Protection Engineer Information Technology Engineer Technical Specialist Design Engineer

    31. 31 Summary Reduced time spent in tasks with DFR Open access to event recordings Ethernet has increased reliability of communications to remote DFR Hard Disk Unit minimizes possibility of lost event recordings at DFR

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