Histamine Related Concerns for Potential Scombrotoxic Fish Processed with Carbon Monoxide or Filtered Smokes. Steve Otwell University of Florida Aquatic Food Products Program. Which do you find more appealing ?. USE OF CARBON MONOXIDE. Advantages Disadvantages.
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Histamine Related Concerns for Potential Scombrotoxic Fish Processed with Carbon Monoxide or Filtered Smokes
Steve OtwellUniversity of FloridaAquatic Food Products Program
Which do you find more appealing ?
Commercial Opinion is Divided
traditional Hot Smoking...Cold Smoking
1960’s gas blends with MAP & ROP
1970’s CO patents for meat, poultry and fish
1980’s Patents for ‘Filtered’ Smoke
1999 Patent & Petition for ‘Tasteless Smoke’
2001 Patent for 0.4% CO with Red Meats (Canada)
William R Kowalski October 26, 1999
Applications ( Tasteless, Clear, Artificial-TS ): Passive ‘gas in a bag’ Active ‘pressure differentials’ Euthanasia (cultured fish)
Products: Tuna other fish species Tilapia other cultured species
Locations: IndoPacific South & Central America and recently USA
Sushi Gradesvs. Grill Grades
C. botulinum issue if refrigerated vs. frozen
Mandated vs. Enforced ?
CO is not approved as a food additive
CO is not approved as a color additive
CO can not be used to a make product look better than it is …
…while FDA did not grant GRAS status for use of ‘tasteless smoke, they did not object to a petition for use with tuna …?
FDA’s response issued caution with the use of CO and specified necessary labeling…Tuna, Tasteless Smoke (as a preservative)Tuna, Carbon Monoxide (as a preservative)
Similar position on red meat petition…?
NMFS - voluntary inspection services (fee)
List NMFS Approved Operations
- basic sanitation - HACCP program - color standards (fading) ?
USA - primary market
Japan - banned if CO concentration greater than 500 ug/kg (?)Canada - not ‘currently’ approvedsince requested in 1999
EU - Committee objections in 2001, yet limited utilization in meats (Norway)
Less experienced participants
Competition - Patent infringement & Royalties - Fresh vs. Frozen Producers - “Refreshed” Products
Negative Publicity Anticipated
Public Reactions ?
Tuna's Red Glare?
It Could Be Carbon MonoxideHiroko Masuike for The New York TimesAPPETIZING? At Oh! Raku, above, tuna, boldly red, has been treated with gas.
By JULIA MOSKIN (Oct. 2004)
Often competitors with refrigerated products
China treats fish with carbon monoxide !
Species specific issue - claiming potential scombrotoxic illnesses due to consumption of certain fish that “looked” good or acceptable although it may have suffered thermal abuse prior to processing or during subsequent handling or storage
Science is trailing commercial practice