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By: Ji-yeon, Priyanka, Calvin . Protestant Christianity . Significant People . Martin Luther – initiated Protestant Reformation. . King Henry VIII – separated English Church from Roman Church and made himself head of English Church. .

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By ji yeon priyanka calvin l.jpg

By: Ji-yeon, Priyanka, Calvin

Protestant Christianity


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Significant People

  • Martin Luther – initiated Protestant Reformation.

  • King Henry VIII – separated English Church from Roman Church and made himself head of English Church.

  • John Knox – a leader of the Protestant Reformation. Founded the Presbyterian Church.

  • King Edward VI – Under his rule, Protestant Christianity becomes main religion in England.

  • John Calvin – influential pastor during Protestant Reformation. Founded Calvinism.


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Significant Events

  • Peace of Westphalia – ended the European Religious wars.

  • European religious wars – series of wars in Europe following Protestant Reformation.

  • The 95 Theses – Martin Luther nailed it and it began the Protestant Reformation.

  • The ruins of Glastonbury Abbey after the Dissolution of Monasteries during King Henry VIII’s rule.


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Europe After the Reformation

Protestant Christianity increased greatly after the Protestant Reformation.


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Change Over Time

  • The head of the Roman Catholic Church was the pope, whom was thought to be flawless and he had the same authority as the religious scriptures.

  • With Protestant Reformation there were many changes.

    • 1. Sola Scriptura – The meaning is “by scripture alone”. Unlike the Roman Catholic Church, it means that only the scripture has authority of the people.

    • 2. Sola Fide – The meaning is “by faith alone”. It means that the people are saved by God through faith alone and nothing else.

    • 3. Sola Gratia – The meaning is “by grace alone”. It means that the people are saved only through God and no one else.

    • 4. Priesthood of all believers – it means that the people have an access to God through themselves.

    • 5. Protestant Christianity abolished the authority of the Pope, merit of good works, indulgences, mediation of Mary and the Saints, all the sacraments excluding Baptism and the Lord’s Supper because they were practiced by Christ, doctrine of transubstantiation, mass as a sacrifice, purgatory, prayers for the dead, and confessions to a priest.


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Change Over Time (continued)

  • 1517 - The Protestant Reformation begins

  • 1521 – King Henry VIII, split Roman Catholic Church from England and became the Head of English Church.

  • 1530 – The Lutheran Church branches off of Protestant Christianity (founded by Martin Luther).

  • 1547 - King Edward VI becomes King of England. Protestant Christianity becomes the main religion.

  • 1550’s – Calvinism is created and branching off of Protestant Christianity, dominates in Europe.

  • 1553 – Mary I becomes Queen of England . England returns to Roman Catholicism and Protestants are persecuted and burned at the stake.

  • 1563 – The Thirty-nine Articles are written and the Anglican Church branches off of Protestant Christianity.

  • 1572 – The Presbyterian Church branches off of Protestant Christianity (founded by John Knox, after disagreement with Lutherans over sacraments and the church government).



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Chronology

  • Protestantism was first established as a branch of Christianity during the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revolt. It began in 1517 when Martin Luther published the Ninety-Five Theses and ended in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia.

  • October 31, 1517: Protestant Reformation begins in Wittenberg where Martin Luther nailed the Ninety-Five Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences to the door of the Castle Church. The theses criticized the Church and the Pope and opened the doors for debate. The Protestant Reformation broke power of Catholic Church and split Europe into 2 groups: the Catholics and the Protestants.

  • 1520: Luther publishes 3 pamphlets: “Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation”, “Babylonian Captivity of the Church”, and “Freedom of a Christian”. Followers of Luther were known as Lutherans.

  • January 3, 1521: Luther is officially excommunicated (suspended from religious community).

  • 1521: Henry VIII, a Catholic King, defends the papacy against Luther in a book called The Defense of the Seven Sacraments.

  • 1521: Diet of Worms (Edict of Worms), which was an assembly of the Roman Empire decreed Luther as an outlaw religiously and secularly.

  • 1524-1525: (German Peasants’ War) German peasants revolt partly because of the Protestant Reformation.


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Chronology (continued)

  • 1529: Diet of Speyer reaffirms edict of the Diet of Worms.

  • 1531: The Smalkaldic League, an offensive and defensive alliance, is concluded between Protestant princes and cities.

  • 1534: John Calvin converts to Protestantism and becomes a highly influential leader in Protestant Reformation. Followers were called Calvinists.

  • 1535: Protestant and Catholic armies crush the radicals in Munster.

  • 1541: John Calvin publishes “Institutes of the Christian Religion,” a summary of Christian teachings.

  • 1547: Collapse of Smalkaldic League.

  • 1550’s: Calvinism takes over as the dominant Protestant religion in Europe

  • 1572: St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre in which French Protestants were the target.

  • 1607: First successful English Protestant colony in Virginia (New World).

  • 1618: Thirty Year War begins. It was initially fought because of the religious conflict between the Protestants and the Catholics.

  • 1648: End of Thirty Year War. The Treaty of Westphalia ends European religious wars.


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Comparisons

  • Protestants are a branch off of Christianity, so they are monotheistic (belief in one god), just like other monotheistic religions such as Judaism and Islam. In contrast, Protestantism is different from polytheistic (belief in multiple gods) religions such as the religions of early Greek and Egypt empires.

  • Protestantism originated in Germany. During the Protestant Reformation, Protestantism spread to other parts of Europe because of influential leaders such as Martin Luther and John Calvin and the printing press’s ability to copy and spread information quickly to multiple areas.

  • The pilgrims traveled to America so they could practice their Protestant faith in 17th century and avoid being forced to practice a certain religion by the Church; however, earlier in the 16th century, people such as Luther in Germany and Europe were excommunicated because of Protestant faith.

  • Protestantism was able to grow in different ways as well. In Europe the idea that family was fundamental unit fostered religous belief. In Asia, missionaries that helped establish schools and clinics were able to spread Protestantism.


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Comparisons (continued)

  • British Baptists played a major role by converting people in Central Africa to Protestantism by providing them with a basic education and minimal welfare services.

  • Movement of Protestantism was strongest in the Northern Europe. The southern countries of Spain and Italy remained mainly Catholic.

  • Other branches of Protestantism emerged during the Reformation period. For example Calvinism was mainly followed in Switzerland, France, and the Netherlands. Lutheranism was quickly followed in Denmark. In England, Protestantism took many forms because of churches of Lutheranism, Calvinism, and Anglicanism all received popular support.

  • Both Protestantism and Catholicism were spread by European merchants, soldiers, and missionaries around the world, especially in the Americas.

  • -Protestantism came to each region in a different way. In Europe the idea of humanism gave rise to the Protetsant Reformation. In Asia, Protestantism was introduced by missionaries. In North America, Protestantism came with the Puritans.



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Europe PIRATES (continued)



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Asia PIRATES (continued)




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Protestant Christianity Today

  • In 2005, there were an estimated 800 million Protestant Christians in the world. Now the Protestant religion is split up into many denominations like Lutherans, Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists and the Congregationalists. Protestant Christianity also branched out into the fundamentalists. In the 21st century, about 27% of the population in the United States and Russia are fundamentalists. Protestantism has also been expanding into areas like Latin America, where Catholicism is more prominent in the area. In the end, the growth of Protestantism is still high. It had impacted religious practices all across the world, especially in countries in Latin America, who are converting to Protestantism. In China, Protestant Christianity has improved their economy with the practice of the Protestant Ethics.


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Works Cited

  • http://www.skwirk.com.au/p-c_s-14_u-422_t-1108_c-4281/VIC/7/The-spread-of-Protestantism-in-Europe/The-Reformation/Renaissance-and-Reformation/History

  • http://www.britannica.com/facts/5/467586/Protestantism-as-discussed-in-Central-Africa

  • http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12495a.htm

  • http://socyberty.com/history/protestant-reformation-timeline

  • http://worldhistoryforusall.sdsu.edu/eras/era6.php

  • http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/rel04-demograph.htm

  • http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/832012

  • http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon41.html

  • http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/salem/SAL_ACCT.HTM


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Work Division

  • Ji-yeon – PowerPoint, Maps/Charts/Pictures, Change over time.

  • Priyanka – PIRATES, Protestant Christianity today.

  • Calvin – Comparison, Chronology