Zoo Legislation and Animal Records. Rebecca Perry. DEFRA Zoo Liaison Committee. As part of the Animal Records Core Group, I sit on the DEFRA Zoo Liaison Committee This is our opportunity to liaise directly with DEFRA concerning zoo-related legislation
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Zoo Legislation and Animal Records Rebecca Perry
DEFRA Zoo Liaison Committee • As part of the Animal Records Core Group, I sit on the DEFRA Zoo Liaison Committee • This is our opportunity to liaise directly with DEFRA concerning zoo-related legislation • The Committee meets in DEFRA offices two-three times per year
DEFRA Zoo Liaison Committee • DEFRA – imports, international trade, welfare, exports, exotics and risk, wildlife law enforcement and zoos • BIAZA • EAZA • BALPPA • Zoos – around 9 zoos, ranging from vets, to zoo directors and curators • Health Protection Agency
Recent Topics of Discussion • EU Animal Health Legislation • BALAI Directive • Imports of Ungulates from Third Countries • Clarification of TB testing • Clarification of primate movements • Development of the EU Zoos Directive and Best Practice Document • Disease risk and status, including the risk of Beaver reintroduction • Wing pinioning
EU Animal Health Legislation • On 6 May 2013, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a single, comprehensive animal health law to replace the complicated animal health rules currently in place. • Current EU animal health legislation is complex and difficult to navigate. • Current framework involves almost 50 basic directives and regulations and some 400 pieces of secondary legislation, some of them adopted as early as 1964. • The huge number of legal acts relating to animal health would be streamlined into a single law. • Simpler and clearer rules would free up time and prevention and eradication of disease. • Responsibilities would be clarified for farms, vets and others dealing with animals, including zoos. Read the proposal here: http://ec.europa.eu/food/animal/animal-health-proposal-2013_en.htm
EU Animal Health Legislation • The main rationale for doing this is: • Animal disease outbreaks can harm not just other animals, but also humans, as well as the overall economy and trade. • An overall strategy is lacking and there is insufficient focus on preventing disease. • There is no objective categorisation & prioritisation of animal health policy measures. • Coordination of animal disease surveillance needs to be improved, with the various sectors and surveillance systems working together effectively.
EU Animal Health Legislation • The new rules would allow greater use of new technologies for animal health activities - surveillance of pathogens, electronic identification and registration of animals. • Better early detection & control of animal diseases, including emerging diseases linked to climate change, would help the EU meet with international standards. • There would be more flexibility to adjust rules to local circumstances, and to emerging issues such as climate and social change.
DEFRA Zoo Liaison Committee’s Role • Members of the DEFRA Zoo Liaison Committee have sat on the core group for this new legislation to promote the role of zoos. • There was concern that zoos were bundled together with pet shops and circuses. There is a different level of disease risk in zoos and this needs to be understood • There is not a good definition of an aquarium - aquatic animal health team are very aware of issues surrounding definitions, and the difference between closed systems and ornamental.
Imports of Ungulates from Third Countries to Bodies, Institutes and CentresCouncil Directive 92/65/EEC • The imports of certain ungulates into the EU was banned • Council Directive 2004/68 - lays down animal health rules for importation into the Union of certain live ungulates • lack of agreement on a third country list from which to export • lack of specific animal health requirements for the introduction of ungulates • This causes numerous practical problems http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:219:0001:0021:EN:PDF
Approved Third Country List • A new Regulation has been put down in August 2013 to permit such imports (Commission Implementing Regulation EU No 780/2013). • A third country list has now been approved for imports, only if the ungulates are consigned to an approved body, institute or centre • Livestock ungulates have previously been allowed to enter the EU from a very limited range of countries (laid down in Commission Implementing Regulation EU No 206/2010) • Countries or regions which are approved for the imports into the EU of products of animal origin for human consumption, imports of equidae and imports of poultry or poultry products (countries included in the lists in Directives 2002/99/EC, 2009/156/EC and 2009/158/EC)
Risk Assessments for Exporting Bodies • A risk assessment will be carried out on the exporting establishment and agreed at the SCOFCAH (Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health) • The exporting body must be able to demonstrate good biosecurity and surveillance, such that the risk from animals originating from that establishment will be reduced. • The exporting body will need to meet equivalent conditions to those laid down for BALAI approval in the EU. • Each Member State will establish a list of appropriate bodies, institutes or centres following their assessment, which will be published
Health Certification • Following suitable quarantine, appropriate health certification for export is required, • Fulfil the general requirements for the introduction of live animals into the Union • Fulfil further specific animal health requirements and offer specific guarantees ensuring that the animals introduced into the Union do not endanger the animal health status of the Union. • After import, the animals will need to remain in an approved body for at least 6 months • The animal should only be added in accordance with the added animals procedure in line with BALAI approval.
Current Status • At present no bodies, institutes or centres have been approved for export to the EU. • DEFRA, AHVLA and BIAZA are working on guidance and forms for UK bodies and exporting bodies to use to enable them to provide all the information for the competent authority risk assessment. • Once a body, institute or centre has been approved for export to a particular country, other Member States may accept animals from it if they wish, but they may also require their own separate risk assessment.
BALAI Movements • The BALAI Directive 92/65/EEC provides a framework of rules for trade between Member States in live animals and germplasm and also imports from third countries, concerning those species that are not covered elsewhere by EU legislation. • The BALAI Directive covers species that are not otherwise provided for in Directives for domestic species (namely, equidae, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry). • Query on process of movement to non-approved premises?
Zoo Directive Guidance and Best Practice Project • New documentation to improve the implementation of the Zoo Directive 1999/22/EC in Europe and improve welfare for animals in captivity • *VetEffecT* from the Netherlands and *ActiveLifeCompany* from Spain are working together to compile Guidance and Best Practice • The project focuses on the collection and preparation of science-based and practical information related to zoos • in particular concerning research, training, exchange of information, captive breeding and other population support actions; public education and awareness; accommodating animals under satisfactory conditions; preventing escape; and keeping appropriate records. • They have sent out questionnaires to competent authorities, interest groups and zoos in all Member States of the European Union. • VetEffect has completed its first round of consultation via questionnaire. Read more here: http://www.veteffect.eu/project/zoo-directive-guidance-and-best-practice-project
Zoo Directive Guidance and Best Practice Project • They have composed a Stakeholder Liaison Group (SLG) to contribute to the Guidance Document and an expert panel with independent, experienced zoo experts to enable unbiased consultation regarding the implementation of the Zoo Directive. • The SLG will have an advisory and support role, providing guidance and advice on all activities of the project. • A total of 3 SLG meetings will be held to address and discuss specific issues relating to the guidelines. • The Stakeholder Liaison Group has had its first of three meetings and VetEffect are now working on the first draft of their guidance document. • The Stakeholder Liaison Group has 10 members representing zoos, Governments and NGOs. DEFRA is a member, as is ZSL. • UK zoos are regarded as amongst the best in Europe and our system of licensing and inspection, based on the SSSMZP, could be a model for other countries. • The DEFRA Zoo Liaison Committee will contribute any thoughts to this guidance document and continue to keep up to date on progress.
Disease Risk and Status • DEFRA’s risk team regularly update the DEFRA Zoo Liaison Group on Disease Risk and Status • They present any outbreak assessments / full risk assessments • Schmallenberg virus – reporting on its spread over Europe, its impact in cattle, sheep and goats and continuing to ensure it has not caused deformities in wild cervids, alpacas etc. • Foot and mouth disease e.g. Russia • Lumpy skin disease - in the Middle East, Israel in particular. • African swine fever - Russia has a problem with ASF, the UK has increased the levels of checks on personal belongings at airports from Russian flights. • Bird flu –cases occurring in Europe. • Risk of Introducing Echinoccocusmultilocularis http://www.defra.gov.uk/animal-diseases/monitoring/poa/ and http://www.defra.gov.uk/animal-diseases/monitoring/risk-assessments/
Risk of Introducing Echinoccocusmultilocularis • Echinococcusmultilocularis, a Taenid tapeworm, is one of the most pathogenic, parasitic zoonoses present in Central Europe. • It is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis disease in humans - humans may become accidentally infected by ingesting eggs from the contaminated environment, which form cysts. • Currently the United Kingdom is classified as E. multilocularisfree. • In May 2010, a female Eurasian beaver held in captivity was found dead and upon further examination of the liver E. multilocularis was isolated (Barlow et al., 2011). The beaver had been imported from Bavaria, Germany in late 2006.
Risk of Introducing Echinoccocusmultilocularis • This risk assessment aims to address the risk posed by imported European beavers infected with E. multilocularisto UK indigenous wildlife. • Overall, the risk of importing E. multilocularisinfected beavers from free areas and infection being established in indigenous UK wildlife is considered negligible. • To minimize the risk of E. multilocularisbeing introduced and establishing within UK wildlife, the only suitable risk mitigation measure would therefore be to source beavers from UK captive bred populations or from countries which are currently free of E. multilocularis • The likelihood is that any licences issued for keeping beavers outside would include some provisions about the beaver being kept in an appropriate way.
Wing Pinioning • Response to emerging debates / criticism • DEFRA is able to provide clarification on the legal position of lay persons carrying out pinioning in birds • Covered by the Veterinary Surgeons Act (1966) • If there is necessity, a project team can be made to focus on this issue to get an Exemption Order for pinioning (as there is for wing and web tagging) • The haziness of zoo records may be an issue here, as to whether collections accurately recorded who did the pinioning on the birds if the procedure has been conducted.
How Can You Keep Up To Date With Changes in Legislation? BIAZA newsletter
How Can You Keep Up To Date With Changes in Legislation? DEFRA’s new website has a section related to zoos: https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/protecting-biodiversity-and-ecosystems-at-home-and-abroad/supporting-pages/species-protection
How Can You Keep Up To Date With Changes in Legislation? DEFRA’s new website has a latest news section: https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/protecting-biodiversity-and-ecosystems-at-home-and-abroad/supporting-pages/species-protection
Secretary of States Standards of Modern Zoo Practice https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69596/standards-of-zoo-practice.pdf
How Can You Keep Up To Date With Changes in Legislation? • DEFRA Connect is a corporate communication service for DEFRA and its delivery bodies. • Customer information notes http://www.defra.gov.uk/animal-trade/cins/ • AHVLA RSS feeds http://www.defra.gov.uk/ahvla-en/about-us/disease-alerts/rss-feeds/
What RSS Feeds are Available? • The following RSS feeds are available from AHVLA: • Latest news • Latest disease updates • CITES news • OV procurement news • Border Inspection Post (BiP) news • OV instructions
CITES RSS Feeds • CITES news: http://www.defra.gov.uk/ahvla-en/imports-exports/cites/cites-news/ • Publication of new annex listings http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:339:FULL:EN:PDF • New CITES charges http://www.defra.gov.uk/ahvla-en/imports-exports/cites/cites-news/new-charges-for-cites-applications-come-into-effect/
What RSS Feeds are Available? http://www.defra.gov.uk/aahm/files/Form-ILFA1-Leaflet.pdf