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Exploration & Colonization of the Americas. I. First Immigrants-Native Americans. Archeological Theory: Ancient Asians migrated across a land bridge formed during the last Ice Age in search of food. Approximately 30,000 years ago.

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Exploration & Colonization of the Americas

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i first immigrants native americans
I. First Immigrants-Native Americans

Archeological Theory: Ancient Asians migrated across a land bridge formed during the last Ice Age in search of food. Approximately 30,000 years ago.

-These first Americans hunted game and gathered available fruits and vegetables. They then developed farming techniques so that they could live in one place without roaming.

i first immigrants native americans3
I. First Immigrants-Native Americans

-Several large civilizations developed:

Aztecs-Central Mexico

Mayas-Central America


*All were highly developed with large cities and calendars

*They were far more civilized earlier than European settlements

i first immigrants native americans4
I. First Immigrants-Native Americans

U.S. Civilizations

Anasazi-Southwest-built large pueblo apartment houses


Plains Indians-Great Plains-tracked large buffalo herds

Eastern Woodlands-hunted small game and fed off abundant forests

Iroquoi-New York-built longhouses and formed League of Iroquois-5 tribes

ii exploration
II. Exploration

A. Why Explore? Gold, God, Glory

Gold-European monarchs needed money to finance armies

God-Many wanted to spread Christianity

Glory-A sense of adventure and heroism attracted many explorers

ii exploration6
II. Exploration

B. Age of Discovery

Explorers-All wanted to find a quicker route to Asia. China's riches were the grand prize.


1. Hernando Cortes(1521)-conquered the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan with his army & 100,000 Indians who hated the Aztecs.

2. Francisco Pizarro(1533)-conquered the Inca in Peru.

ii exploration7
II. Exploration

C. Different Nations=Different Goals

Spanish-Spread Christianity and conquer to build an empire

French-Establish trading posts


iii colonization
III. Colonization

In the late 1500's, colonies led by individuals failed miserably.

Joint-stock companies developed-Groups of investors who bought shares in the colony.

The first English attempt was by Sir Walter Raleigh on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. This resulted in a failure and the “Lost Colony.”

Virginia Dare-first European child born in the Americas

iii colonization9
III. Colonization

A. Virginia-founded at Jamestown in 1607


1. Land chosen was swampy, unfit for farming, and full of disease.

2. Colonists were "gentlemen", rather than farmers and workers.

3. Colonists spent too much time searching for gold and silver.

iii colonization10
III. Colonization

A. Virginia-founded at Jamestown in 1607


1. John Smith took over and forced colonists to work.

2. New type of tobacco introduced that grew well in Virginia.

iii colonization11
III. Colonization

A. Virginia-founded at Jamestown in 1607


1. 1618-headright system gave colonists 50 acres and increased immigration.

Most immigrants were still indentured servants, however.

2. 1619-First Africans arrived, most likely as indentured servants.

iii colonization12
III. Colonization

A. Virginia-founded at Jamestown in 1607


3. 1619-July 30-22 representatives called burgesses met to outline laws for the colony

4. 1624-After large loss of colonists and the bankruptcy of the Virginia Company,

King James I revoked its charter, taking total control. Virginia was now a royal colony.

iii colonization13
III. Colonization

B. Massachusetts-founded at Plymouth in 1620

2 Groups, 1 Reason: Religious freedom

-Anglican Church in England persecuted religious dissenters (people who disagreed).

iii colonization14
III. Colonization

B. Massachusetts-founded at Plymouth in 1620

1. Puritans-wanted to purify & reform the Anglican Church.

Beliefs: -Humans were naturally sinful-original sin

-Your fate was predetermined-predestination

-Harsh punishment for drunkenness, theft, swearing, and idleness

-Ministers led congregations, not bishops

2. Separatists-wanted to separate from the Anglican Church

iii colonization15
III. Colonization

B. Massachusetts-founded at Plymouth in 1620

Plymouth-Separatists made a financial deal with the Virginia Company. They called themselves Pilgrims and sailed on the Mayflower.

The group had aimed for the northern coast of Virginia, but missed badly, landing near Cape Cod.

Native Americans named Squanto and Samoset helped the Pilgrims survive with farming techniques and making peace.

iii colonization16
III. Colonization

B. Massachusetts-founded at Plymouth in 1620

*Mayflower Compact*-since they were out of the Virginia Company's territory, 41 men drew up this agreement to outline "just and equal laws...for the general good of the colony."

Importance: Landmark in development of the tradition of rule by the people. (democracy)

They elected William Bradford as governor.

iii colonization17
III. Colonization

B. Massachusetts-founded at Plymouth in 1620

Massachusetts Bay-John Winthrop formed the Massachusetts Bay Company and founded the colony at Boston with 1000 colonists.

Very successful and well supplied, the colony eventually absorbed the Plymouth Colony.

iii colonization18
III. Colonization

Other Colonies:

Rhode Island-Roger Williams-1631- banished from Massachusetts, he and a group of followers founded Providence.

It became a safe haven for dissenters.

New York(New Netherlands)-founded by the Dutch on Manhattan Island as a trading post.

English took over and renamed the colony in 1664.

iii colonization19
III. Colonization

Other Colonies:

Maryland-Sir George Calvert and his son, Lord Baltimore (Catholics)

1649-Maryland passed the Act of Toleration=freedom of worship

Georgia-Founded by James Oglethorpe in 1733 with 2 purposes:

(1) Place where debtors could start over

(2) Military protection from the Spanish

iii colonization20
III. Colonization

Other Colonies:

Proprietary Colonies: Land grants given as gifts by the English king.

Carolinas- founded by a group of 8 supporters called Lords Proprietors

Pennsylvania-William Penn-1680-Quakers

Beliefs: Tolerant of other religions, disliked ceremonies, pacifists, inner light

Delaware-divided from Pennsylvania

iv diverse colonial life
IV. Diverse Colonial Life


Colonies found products to export for profit.

Cash crops-crops sold so colonists could buy other items.

Examples: Virginia/Maryland-tobacco

South Carolina-rice & indigo

North Carolina-wood products

iv diverse colonial life22
IV. Diverse Colonial Life


A. Plantation Economics

-These cash crops created 3 specific things:

(1) large farms around rivers

(2) need for lots of labor

(3) wealthy class of plantation owners

iv diverse colonial life23
IV. Diverse Colonial Life


C. Slave Trade

1. First slaves were Indian captives or prisoners of war. By 1700, the African slave trade flourished. Slaves came mostly from West Africa and Central Africa

2. The voyage over, called the Middle Passage, killed many before they arrived in America.

iv diverse colonial life24
IV. Diverse Colonial Life


C. Slave Trade

3. Virginia & Maryland-Slaves worked on tobacco farms with white overseers. Many became

artisans skilled in a trade such as blacksmithing or carpentry.

4. South Carolina-Large rice plantations meant large groups of slaves & very few artisans.

iv diverse colonial life25
IV. Diverse Colonial Life


A.. Port Cities-these cities grew quickly as a result of trade.

Largest colonial cities were Boston, Philadelphia, New York, Charles Town. Most people were still small farmers who relied on barter.

B. Triangle of Trade-Trade Routes between the colonies, Europe, and the West Indies.

vi english power in the colonies
VI. English Power in the Colonies

A. Mercantilism-theory that a nation becomes powerful through trade

1. England used colonies to provide products they could not

2. Naval power developed to protect trade interests

3. Shipbuilding and fishing became important industries

vi english power in the colonies27
VI. English Power in the Colonies

B. Navigation Acts of 1660 and 1663-passed to protect English mercantilism

1. Forced colonists to use English ships and trade directly with England

2. Massachusetts was investigated and had their charter revoked in 1684 for violations

iv colonial democracy
IV. Colonial Democracy

A. Traditions

1. Legislatures-people’s voice in the government. These varied from colony to colony.

2. Protection of Rights

3. Voting-privilege of the wealthy and educated

4. Religious freedom-Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson established

5. Freedom of the Press-John Peter Zenger in 1735 was tried for printing damaging stories about the governor of Pennsylvania. Jury found him not guilty because the stories were true.

iv colonial democracy29
IV. Colonial Democracy

B. Roots

The American System derived from these main sources

1. Ancient Greece and Rome

2. Magna Carta (1215)-limited the power of the king.

3. English Bill of Rights (1689)-Parlaiment listed the rights of all citizens

iv colonial democracy30
IV. Colonial Democracy

B. Roots

4. John Locke-2 ideas:

(1) 3 Natural Rights-life, liberty, and property

(2) Social Contract-people have agreed to be governed if the government protects them. If it does not, they do not have to obey. (consent of the governed)

5. Montesquieu-French philosopher-separation of powers-prevented tyranny

v britain tightens control
V. Britain Tightens Control

As colonies became more difficult to control, Britain tried to force them to obey.

Britain also needed money to pay off war debts.

A. Acts of Parliament

Royal Proclamation of 1763-No colonists past the Appalachian Mountains

Sugar Act (1764)-taxed certain imports like sugar and molasses

v britain tightens control32
V. Britain Tightens Control

As colonies became more difficult to control, Britain tried to force them to obey.

Britain also needed money to pay off war debts.

A. Acts of Parliament

Quartering Act (1765)-required colonists to house and supply British troops

Stamp Act (1765)-required stamps on all printed material

v britain tightens control33
V. Britain Tightens Control

B. Colonial Reaction

"No taxation without representation" - Patrick Henry

Believed that since the colonies were not represented in Parliament, they had no right to tax them.

Protests: Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty organized boycotts of British goods.

Merchants also created nonimportation associations, agreeing not to buy British goods.

v britain tightens control34
V. Britain Tightens Control

C. More Acts

1766-Parlaiment repealed the Stamp Act

Declaratory Act (1766)-said that Parliament did have the right to pass laws in the colonies.

Townshend Acts (1767)-taxed wine, tea, paper, glass, and lead. This taxation went aginst mercantilist theory

v britain tightens control35
V. Britain Tightens Control

D. Tensions Explode-Boston Massacre March 5, 1770*

Boston had become the center of colonial protest and disobedience. Troops were sent to the city to enforce laws.

7 British soldiers fired on an angry mob of colonists, killing 5.

v britain tightens control36
V. Britain Tightens Control

E. Final Events

-Colonies established committees of correspondence to communicate.

-Boston Tea Party-Dec. 16, 1773-Sons of Liberty disguised as Indians boarded 3 ships and dumped 15,000 pounds of tea in Boston Harbor.

v britain tightens control37
V. Britain Tightens Control

E. Final Events

-Intolerable Acts (1774)-passed to punish Boston. Closed Boston harbor and sent more troops.

-Continental Congress-Sept. 1774-representatives from colonies met and voted for: total boycott of British goods, raising militia, repeal of all Parliamentary laws.

vi colonial independence
VI. Colonial Independence

A. Second Continental Congress-May 10, 1775

Leaders: Benjamin Franklin-Pennsylvania

John Hancock-Mass., chosen as president

George Washington-chosen to lead the army

Thomas Jefferson-Virginia

Decisions: Printed money, established post office, created committees to communicate.

*Olive Branch Petition-Congress offered peace, but George III refused to read it.

vi colonial independence39
VI. Colonial Independence

B. Common Sense-Thomas Paine

Pamphlet called for complete independence. Said that independence was the “destiny” of all Americans. He said that independence would create a better life in the colonies. He blamed the king for tyranny.

500,000 copies of it were sold and it helped influence colonists in favor of independence.

vi colonial independence40
VI. Colonial Independence

C. The Declaration of Independence

Thomas Jefferson selected by the Congress to write it.

Issues debated: Slavery, women’s rights, total independence.

4 Sections: (1) Preamble-introduction

(2) Social Contract-philosophy

(3) Grievances-complaints

(4) Proclamation of independence