Expanding the Power of FBA for all Students Ami Flammini, LCSW Ami.email@example.com
Objectives 1. Understand where the process can fit within a PBIS framework 2. Understand the difference between brief and complex FBA/BIP 3. Review current challenges of implementation 4. Review and Understand the key components of FBA/BIP 5. Review tools to support FBA 6. Structures to Consider 7. Data
A few notes before we begin… • Assumptions re: today • A way, not THE way • Action Plan at the End of each Activity • Keeper of the information from today
School-Wide Systems for Student Success: A Response to Intervention (RtI) Model Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions 1-5% • Individual students • Assessment-based • High intensity • 1-5% Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions • Individual students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • 5-15% Tier 2/Secondary Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Small group interventions • Some individualizing • Tier 2/Secondary Interventions 5-15% • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Small group interventions • Some individualizing • Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90% • All students • Preventive, proactive • 80-90% Tier 1/Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Illinois PBIS Network, Revised May 15, 2008. Adapted from “What is school-wide PBS?” OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Accessed at http://pbis.org/schoolwide.htm
SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT: What is meant by “layering” interventions? Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students
Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports:A Response to Intervention (RtI) Model Tier 1/Universal School-Wide Assessment School-Wide Prevention Systems ODRs, Attendance, Tardies, Grades, DIBELS, etc. Tier 2/Secondary Tier 3/ Tertiary Check-in/ Check-out (CICO) Intervention Assessment Social/Academic Instructional Groups (SAIG) Daily Progress Report (DPR)(Behavior and Academic Goals) Group Intervention with Individualized Feature (e.g., Check and Connect -CnC and Mentoring) Competing Behavior Pathway, Functional Assessment Interview, Scatter Plots, etc. Brief Functional Behavior Assessment/ Behavior Intervention Planning (FBA/BIP) Complex or Multiple-domain FBA/BIP SIMEO Tools: HSC-T, RD-T, EI-T Wraparound Illinois PBIS Network, Revised October 2009 Adapted from T. Scott, 2004
A Context for Positive Behavior Support • Aredesign of environments, not the redesign of individuals • Plan describes what we will do differently • Plan is based on identification of the behavioral function of problem behaviors and the lifestyle goals of an individual
What’s the difference between brief and complex FBA/BIP?
Brief vs. Complex FBA/BIP Brief • Generic Individual Problem solving Team • Meeting time/day usually already determined • Plan developed quickly/easily Complex • Individualized Youth FBA/BIP Team • Meeting time/day decided by individualized team • Interventions are highly individualized
Brief vs. Complex FBA/BIP Brief • Every school has this type of meeting • Behavior intervention plans address only one behavior, typically only in one setting. Complex • May be a new type of meeting for schools. • Interventions/strategies address multiple settings and/or behaviors
Brief vs. Complex FBA/BIP Brief • SWIS data, Daily Progress Report (DPR) points, Functional Assessment interviews • Effectiveness of system monitored by SecondarySystems Planning Team • Data reviewed at least every other week Complex • SWIS data, Daily Progress Report (DPR) points, Functional Assessment interviews, SIMEO Data, direct observation data, additional tools as needed • Effectiveness of system monitored by TertiarySystems Planning Team • Data reviewed at least weekly
Brief FBA Minimum Key Components: Teacher(s) Interview, Observable Problem Behavior and Summary Statement, Student Interview, Family Interview Continue data gathering until key components are in place.
Additional Data Tools Used for Complex FBA/BIP • SIMEO • Educational Information Tool • Student Disposition Tool • Problem-Behavior Questionnaire • Forced-Choice Reinforcement Menu • Complex FBA Family-Directed Interview • Direct observation • Setting-specific data (Scatter Plot, ABC chart)
Tier 3 Behavior Intervention Planning • All areas must be addressed: • Setting Events • Triggering Antecedents • Behavior or skills • Consequences • All individuals must be involved: • Family • Non-teaching staff/bus drivers etc. • Teachers/administrators
Challenges • There is a difference between FBA/BIP • Only access if have an IEP • Put in drawer • Written without stakeholders • Problem Statement • Narrow view of setting event • Using FBA/BIP when need higher level intervention • Safety Plans aren’t really safety plans • It’s about changing the environment around the student
Based on Research and Practical Experience… • By the time youth access FBA/BIP intervention, they are already at high-risk of placement change • More youth need FBA/BIP sooner. • Many BIPs focus only on rewarding youth for appropriate behavior, omitting supports that make appropriate behavior more likely
Activity • What other challenges have you faced • What solutions have you found
The Bottom Line • Behavior intervention plans built from functional assessment are more effective. • Research indicates clearly that an effective intervention is tied to function.
Activity: Reflecting on Current Practices… • Do your current generic individual problem solving team meetings result in effective behavior support plans for kids? • Do your current FBA/BIPs prevent problem behavior from occurring? Are youth responding to these supports? • Do the interventions seem to be applied with integrity? • Does special education eligibility affect which students have access to FBA/BIP?
FBA Function is identified through structured interviews focusing on the problem behavior, antecedents, consequences, and setting events,
Functions Pos Reinf Neg Reinf
FBA/BIP Competing Behavior Pathway Student Strengths 5 6 Current Consequence Desired Behavior 2 8 4 1 3 Trigger/Antecedent Problem Behavior(s) Maintaining Consequence Setting Event Function 7 Replacement Behavior Adapted from Sugai, G., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Hagan-Burke, S., 2000
Defining Problem Behavior Observable and Measurable Non-Examples • Hyperactive • Aggressive • Delinquent • Psychotic • Irresponsible Examples • Out of seat and walking around the room touching other student’s things • Hits with hands and kicks peers • Steals valuable items from peers • Reports seeing monsters • Arrives to class late 75% of the time
Antecedent (fast trigger) Non-Examples Examples “Request to do something, request to work on assignments” “Sitting in large group” “When corrected or redirected by staff” “Physical place, such as games like “tag” at recess” “Sue wants control” “Student has low self-esteem and has missed 11 days so far this year” “Student refuses to listen” “There are no triggers”
Setting Event • “Setting event, plus discriminative stimulus, set the occasion for a response that is maintained by a reinforcer” Or you could say… • “Setting events make triggers more likely to cause problem behavior”
Setting Event (slow trigger) Non-Examples Examples “Academic frustration, build up of peer conflict (real or perceived)” “Unstructured times, such as the hall, special classes” “Transitions” “Tardy to school” “History of academic failure” “ADHD” “Parents divorce” “Premature”
CurrentConsequence Consider what most peers obtain from desired behavior Example: Desired Behavior: “on task and complete homework” Maintaining Consequence: “passing grades, decreased office referral”
“Alternative” or “Replacement” Behavior(s) Replacement behaviors must maintain the same functionfor the student with the same accuracy and efficiency as the problem behavior.
Replacement Behaviors Non Examples Examples “When teacher puts hand over mouth the student will raise hand and teacher will call on student next (function: attention)” “Student will do 3 problems, then use a break card. (function: escape from classwork)” “Sit quietly at desk” “Student will create and maintain relationships with peers and staff that do not result in conflict or negative actions (ODRs)” “Student will develop impulse control and behavioral self control”
What Skill(s) Does this Student Need? • What does he need/want/get from his inappropriate behavior? • How is the current behavior reinforced? • What new behavior does he need to learn? • How will the new/appropriate behavior be reinforced?
Functions Pos Reinf Neg Reinf
Competing Behavior Pathway Reflection • Identify which box(s) on the pathway would be most challenging for you to explain to another staff member? Family member? • What questions would you need answered to better understand and explain that box? • Place questions on chart paper under appropriate heading(s).
Questionnaire, Interview (indirect) Tools • FACTS Function Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff • FBA Family-directed interview • Student directed Interview • Assessing activity routines • Problem-behavior questionnaire • Forced-choice reinforcement menu • Setting event checklist • SIMEO: SD-T (shortened version for FBA) • SIMEO: EI-T
Observation (direct) Tools • Scatter plot • ABC chart • Functional Assessment Observation Form • DPR Card
Using the FACTSFunctional Assessment Checklist for Teachers & Staff • Structured interview questions used with teachers and staff. • Guides interviewee to think specifically about components of the Competing Behavior Pathway.
Exploring the FACTs • Find FACTs interview in folder. • Each step will be described and then at your table brainstorm possible questions you would ask a teacher to gather information necessary to complete FBA. Example: Step #2: Student’s Strengths “ What are the student’s strengths?”
FACTS Step #2: Identify Strengths • Identify at least three strengths or contributions that the student brings to school • Important for developing an effective support plan • Makes it more likely that youth will find strategies appropriate, and buy-in to the plan • Makes it more likely youth will be successful (i.e. learn replacement behavior quickly) • New behaviors more likely to be sustained
FACTS Step # 4: Routines Analysis • Routines to identify • Context in which the problem behavior does and does not occur • Identifying routines • Obtain student schedule and rating of frequency of problem behavior • Look for similarities in context across similar activities
Example: Student Daily Progress Report (from S/AIG) NAME:______________________ DATE:__________________ Teachers please indicate YES (2), SO-SO (1), or NO (0) regarding the student’s achievement to the following goals. Adapted from Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools: The Behavior Education Program by Crone, Horner, and Hawken
FACTS Step 5: • List the Routines in order of Priority for Behavior Support • FACTS Part B will be used for each routine/behavior you list here (may be sooner or later)