VISIT. INTRODUCE. 2 DAYS to 4 WEEKS. What Babies Do Parental Frustration Parent Mental Health Parent Support. 2 and 4 MONTHS. Child Care Family Safe Environment Parenting Style Bonding and Attachment. 6 and 9 MONTHS. Establishing Routines Discipline = Teaching Firearms
Is this what you expected?
Be on the lookout for families who are socially isolated or experiencing family discord.
Who helps you with your baby?
How much time do you have off from work?
If there is a gun in the home, how is it stored?
Being a new parent can be exhausting. How are you doing?
I love the way your baby looks at you, soothes to your voice. You’re doing a great job!
Support new parents with
Support new parents with positive statements:
Your infant is alert, growing well, and has a beautiful smile!
Wow, your baby is really interested in my stethoscope! I like the way she lets me examine her, but she is always looking over at you for assurance.
Notice infant’s new behaviors and parent-child interaction:
Reduce the Risk of Gun InjuryVisit: 6 and 9 months
12 and 15 MONTHS
18 MONTHS and 2 YEARS
3 and 4 YEARS
Normal toddler behavior may be especially difficult for families with little social support.
Encourage alternatives to TV, such as outdoor activity or reading.
“She really pays attention when we talk; does she understand when you speak to her?”
“Does your child have opportunities to play with other children this age?”
“Teach your child by providing positive reinforcement for desired behaviors.”
“What do you think your child does best? What does he enjoy doing?”
Tips on How to DisciplineVisit: 12 and 15 Months
Be on the lookout for children with difficult temperaments, families who are socially isolated, and families experiencing discord
Helps parents understand normal toddler behavior and advises them how to
What a delightful child you have! He is really curious about the world. This is great to see!
What’s your favorite TV show?
Ask the child:
The child’s response often indicates the kind of TV programs being watched, which provides a topic to open discussion with parents
I see you really like trucks.
Do you and your friends play with trucks a lot?
Try to notice something about what children are wearing, the toys they bring, or their behavior:
1. Bretherton I, Munholland KA. Internal working models in attachment relationships: a construct revisited. In: Cassidy J, Shaver PR, eds. Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications. New York: Guilford Press; 1999:89-111
2. Sroufe LA, Fleeson J. Attachment and the construction of relationships. In: Hartup WW, Rubin Z, eds. Relationships and Development. Hillside, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1986:51-71
3. Sroufe LA, Fleeson J. The coherence of family relationships. In: Hinde RA, Stevenson-Hinde J, eds. Relationships Within Families: Mutual Influences. Oxford, UK: Clarendon; 1988:27-47
4. Thompson RA. Early sociopersonality development. In: Damon W, Eisenberg N, eds. Handbook of Child Psychology. Vol 3: Social, Emotional, and Personality Development. 5th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 1998:25-104
6. Sroufe LA, Carlson E, Schulman S. Individuals in relationships: development from infancy through adolescence. In: Funder DC, Parke RD, Tomlinson-Keasey C, Widaman K, eds. Studying Lives Through Time: Personality and Development. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 1993:315-342
7. Thompson RA. Early attachment and later development. In: Cassidy J, Shaver PR, eds.Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications. New York: Guilford Press; 1999:265-286
8. Cassidy J. Child-mother attachment and the self in six-year-olds. Child Dev. 1988;59:121-134
9. Verschueren K, Marcoen A, Schoefs V. The internal working model of the self, attachment, and competence in five-year-olds. Child Dev. 1996;67:2493-2511
10. Belsky J, Spritz B, Crnic K. Infant attachment security and affective-cognitive information processing at age 3. Psychol Sci. 1996;7:111-114
11. Kirsh SJ, Cassidy J. Preschoolers’ attention to and memory for attachment-relevant information. Child Dev. 1997;68:1143-1153
12. Laible DJ, Thompson RA. Attachment and emotional understanding in preschool children. Dev Psychol. 1998;34:1038-1045
14. Kerns KA. Individual differences in friendship quality: links to child-mother attachment. In: Bukowski WM, Newcomb AF, Hartup WW, eds. The Company They Keep: Friendship in Childhood and Adolescence. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1996:137-157
15. Park KA, Waters E. Security of attachment and preschool friendships. Child Dev. 1989;60:1076-1081
16. Bradley RH, Caldwell BM, Rock SL. Home environment and school performance: a ten-year follow-up and examination of three models of environmental action. Child Dev. 1988;59:852-867
17. Collins WA, Laursen BP, Hartup WW. Relationships As Developmental Contexts. Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology30. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1999
18. Dunn J. Young Children’s Close Relationships. Newbury Park, CA: Sage; 1993
19. Hartup WW, Rubin Z, eds. Relationships and Development. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1986
20. Maccoby E, Martin J. Socialization in the context of the family: parent-child interaction. In: Mussen P, Hetherington E, eds. Handbook of Child Psychology, Volume 4: Socialization, Personality, and Social Development. 4th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1983:1-102
Howard Spivak, MD
Robert Sege, MD, PhD
Elizabeth Hatmaker-Flanigan, MS
Kimberly Bardy, MPH
This project was supported by Grant No. 2001-JN-FX-0011 awarded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Points of view or opinions in this document are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.