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The Design of a Carbon Neutral Airport

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  1. The Design of a Carbon Neutral Airport Joel Hannah Danielle Hettmann Naseer Rashid Chris Saleh CihanYilmaz

  2. Agenda • Context • Stakeholder Analysis • Problem Statement and Need Statement • Mission Requirements and Scope • Method of Analysis • Design Alternatives • Design of Experiment • Project Plan

  3. Project Definitions Sources: 1. U.S. EPA, Climate Change 2. American Institute of Architects, 2010 • Greenhouse Gases (GHGs): “Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere”1 • Inventory: “accounting of the amount of GHGs emitted to or removed from the atmosphere over a specific period of time”1 • Climate Change: major changes in temperature, rainfall, snow, or wind patterns lasting for decades or longer due to human-made and natural factors • Dispersion: process of air pollutants spreading over a wide area in the ambient atmosphere • Carbon Neutral:  no net release of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere by balancing a measured amount of carbon released with an equivalent amount offset relative to a baseline quantity2

  4. What are Emissions? • Greenhouse Gases • Carbon Dioxide (CO2)* • Methane (CH4)* • Nitrous Oxide (N2O)* • Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6)* • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFC)* • Perfluorocarbons (PFC)* • Particulates • Carbon Monoxide (CO) • Lead (Pb) • Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) • Fine Particulate (PM2.5) • O-zone (O3) • Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) • Coarse Particulate (PM10) *GHG included in the Kyoto Protocol (UN 1998) Source: ACRP Report 11, Transportation Research Board U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

  5. Greenhouse Gases and Temperature Source: EPA, 2011 with data from Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, 2010 and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2010

  6. Increase in Air Traffic • Sources: 1 ACRP Report 11, Transportation Research Board 2009 • 2 Putting Aviation's Emissions in Context, International Civil Aviation Organization • 3 Federal Aviation Administration, October 2011 Aviation accounts for: 3.63% of U.S. GHG Emissions (U.S. EPA 2007)1 and 2% of global CO2 Emissions (IPCC, 2004)2 Direct impact of emissions into the atmosphere, Emissions concentrated in high traffic areas

  7. Current Legislation: Kyoto Protocol • The Kyoto Protocol is an environmental treaty with the goal of reducing climate change through the stabilization anthropogenic emissions • Protocol commits to reduce or trade emissions and targets domestic air travel related emissions • 191 countries have ratified the protocol as of September 2011 • United States is only remaining signatory to not have ratified the treaty • US Administration belief that lack of quantitative emission commitments for developing countries is not equal treatment, therefore have not signed Source: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) Status of Kyoto Protocol Ratification, 2011 STERN, 2007

  8. Current Legislation: National Ambient Air Quality Standards Source: Kumar, Sherry, & Thompson , 2008 EPA, 2011 • NAAQS established by the USEPA • Standards established to place limits on particulate emissions in outdoor spaces • Non-attainment: defined as areas where air pollution levels persistently exceed the national ambient air quality standards  • Increased particulate emissions will jeopardize the ability of the US to stay below non-attainment standards

  9. Airport Operations • General Idea: • Passengers flow-in in cars/buses/mass-transit/airplanes • passengers leave on airplanes/mass transit • Case Study: • Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) – Washington Dulles International Airport • 127 airline gates • Concourse A,B,C,D,Z • AeroTrain system • Mobile Lounges • Four Runways Source: U.S. Geological Survey, 2011

  10. Ground Access Dulles International: • Economy Parking Lots serviced by MWAA controlled shuttle buses • Airport is serviced by two major roadways: Route 28 and the Dulles Toll road (Route 267). • Ground access vehicles include personal vehicles, taxis, buses, and mass transportation • Economy Lot • Daily Garage 1 • Daily Garage 2 • Hourly Lot • Valet Parking • 24,000 public parking spaces Source: MWAA, 2011

  11. Bottlenecks • Bottlenecks occur: • In flow of aircraft (delays – gate push back, departure congestion, taxi times) • In flow of ground access vehicles (congestion on roads servicing airports and delays, increased idling time at arrivals/departures) • Bottlenecks cause an increase in emissions through increased engine use time • Optimization of airport flow would assist in overall reduction of GHG emissions

  12. Agenda • Context • Stakeholder Analysis • Problem Statement and Need Statement • Mission Requirements and Scope • Method of Analysis • Design Alternatives • Design of Experiment • Project Plan

  13. Stakeholders

  14. Stakeholder Views • Tension • Business v. Environmental • Too many possible owners • Government, Airport Mangers, Air Carriers, NGOs, etc. • Long-term effects • Global climate change • Makes things difficult • No motivation to change current airport operations

  15. Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) • The cost of emitting extra CO2 at any point in time. • Convincing people why this problem matters: • Average cost = $43 USD per metric ton of CO2 • Higher the price, the more noticed the problem will get Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007

  16. Stakeholder Interactions • Major Stakeholder Groups: • Regulators • Capital Improvement Bill Payers • Airport Service Boundary • Airport Operational Boundary • Local Economy and Community

  17. Stakeholder Interactions: Emissions • RED path shows emissions loop • Long term, weak feedback • Emissions generated within Airport Operational Boundary • Impact local community through noise and emissions • Local Community votes for local government which have influence on nominations to airport board

  18. Stakeholder Interactions: Financial • ORANGE path shows financial loop • Airports depend on both capital and operating revenues to pay for capital projects and operating expenses1 • Interactions between passengers, local communities, and business • strongest response time due to financial decisions and can have runaway growth since other loops are weak Source: 1 - Introduction to Airport Finance, Schaar, 2011

  19. Stakeholder Interactions: Legislative • GREEN: government/capital improvement funding • MWAA serves as airport Manager for Dulles • 13-member Board of Directors for MWAA • 5 members – VA • 3 members – DC • 2 members – MD • 3 members – President • Regulators provide legislation for aviation which must be enforced

  20. Agenda • Context • Stakeholder Analysis • Problem Statement and Need Statement • Mission Requirements and Scope • Method of Analysis • Design Alternatives • Design of Experiment • Project Plan

  21. Problem • Current State: • Legislation exists for air quality and emissions; anticipate a national standard for aviation emissions • Conflicting Stakeholder opinion; no ownership of problem identified • Desired State: Carbon Neutral Airport • To reduce the impact of stationary and non-stationary GHG emissions within the airport paradigm on global environment

  22. Need • A tool to collect and report GHG emissions for stationary and non-stationary sources at airports • Monitor emissions • Verify compliance • Analyze data to identify sources to reduce emissions output

  23. Agenda • Context • Stakeholder Analysis • Problem Statement and Need Statement • Mission Requirements and Scope • Method of Analysis • Design Alternatives • Design of Experiment • Project Plan

  24. Mission Requirements * Accuracy based on magnitude of calculations. 24 • The system shall report total aviation related CO2 emissions for stationary and non-stationary sources • The system shall account for aviation related emissions within the boundary of the landing/takeoff (LTO) cycle around the airport. • The system shall report GHG emissions by source. • The system shall calculate emissions within 1.1% accuracy for each emissions source.* • The system shall provide structure for additional GHGs to be calculated.

  25. Scope • Geographically limited to the Landing Take-off (LTO) cycle • 12-nautical mile (NM) radius • Mixing Altitude: 3,000 feet above ground • Vertical region of atmosphere where pollutant mixing occurs • Pollutants released above 3000 feet generally do not mix with ground level emission, no impact on local area below • Tool is limited to only CO2 emissions • Non-Airplane sources of GHGs are limited to the airport paradigm • Source: USGS, 2011 • FAA, 2011

  26. Landing-Take Off Cycle (LTO) • LTO refers to the number of aircraft that land and then takeoff • LTO is divided into 5segments • Approach • Taxi-idle • Takeoff • Climbout • Ground • Source: Port of Seattle Seattle-Tacoma International Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory - 2006

  27. Airport Operations: Stationary Sources • Boilers • Facility Boilers • Heating Boilers • Fuel Boilers • Waste Management Activities • Waste Disposal • Incinerators • Training Fires • Construction Activities

  28. Airport Operations: Non-Stationary Sources • Aircrafts • Auxiliary Power Units (APUs) • Ground Access Vehicles • Public transportation • Bus • Train • Subway • Taxis • Vans • Shuttles • Rental Cars • Personal Vehicles • Ground Support Equipment (GSE) • Tugs & Tractors • Fuel Tankers • Ground Power Units • Buses • Container Loader • Transporters • Air Starter • Catering Vehicles • Passenger Boarding Stairs • Pushback tugs

  29. Agenda • Context • Stakeholder Analysis • Problem Statement and Need Statement • Mission Requirements and Scope • Method of Analysis • Design Alternatives • Design of Experiment • Project Plan

  30. Method of Analysis - AIT

  31. Equations • GAV and GSE: Emissions = • Aircrafts: Emissions = + • Stationary Sources: Emissions = • i= GAV/GSE source • j = aircraft (landing) • k = aircraft (takeoff) • m = stationary source • f = amount of fuel consumed • E = emissions index • Emissions indices from: • U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) • U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)

  32. Inputs: GAV and GSE • Amount of Fuel Consumed fi • Total burned • Distance, Average Fuel Burn Rate (FBR) • Emissions Index Ei • Type of fuel burned Emissions =

  33. Inputs: Aircrafts • Emissions = + • Amount of Fuel Consumed fj, fk • Total fuel consumption, phase of flight (landing j, takeoff k) • Aircraft model, phase of flight • Operating time, phase of flight • Emissions Index Ej, Ek • Type of fuel • Type of aircraft

  34. Input: Stationary Sources • Emissions = • Amount of Fuel Consumed fm • Emissions Index Em • Type of fuel and substances burned • Source function (boilers, incinerator, etc.)

  35. Preliminary Results: B757 • Aircraft: • 1 landing, 1 takeoff: 4795 kg Jet-A fuel • 30,076.88 kg CO2 • Ground Support Equipment: • 11 sources • 36.7409 kg CO2

  36. Aircrafts

  37. Ground Support Equipment

  38. Limitations *GHG included in the Kyoto Protocol (UN 1998) • Methane (CH4)* • Nitrous Oxide (N2O)* • Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6)* • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFC)* • Perfluorocarbons (PFC)* • Dispersion • Helicopters • not included in IPCC LTO methodology • Dulles Airport has less than 10 helicopters/year Source: EPA, 2009

  39. Risk: Data Availability • Most data is not public • Mitigation: • Use distributions from previous inventories (Seattle, Denver) to determine source types • Use accepted averages for calculations by source type

  40. Risk: Data Reliability • Inaccurate Inputs • Inaccurate Calculations • Mitigation: • Use previous inventory inputs and results to compare with AIT results. (Seattle, Denver) • Consult MWAA

  41. Agenda • Context • Stakeholder Analysis • Problem Statement and Need Statement • Mission Requirements and Scope • Method of Analysis • Design Alternatives • Design of Experiment • Project Plan

  42. Carbon Neutral Airport Strategy • Aims to remove as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as they add to it • Tiered approach to reduce carbon emissions through the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency technologies Source: The Carbon Neutral Company

  43. Proposed Alternatives: GAV and GSE • Ground Access • Reduce Energy Need: • Implement a ride share program to encourage carpooling • Combined Rental Car Shuttle: currently eight companies run their own shuttle to/from terminal • Public transportation • Metro (Slated to Open 2013) • Hybrid buses • Ground Support • New energy technologies • Electric, Hybrid, Hydrogen and Propane ground support vehicles & equipment

  44. Proposed Alternatives: Aircraft and Stationary Sources • Aircraft • Alternative fuels • Hydrogen • Compressed natural gas • Biodiesel • Fixed ground power • Air traffic management • Continuous descent approach (CDA) • Shorter taxiing times • Stationary Sources • Renewable energy sources • Solar Energy • Wind Energy • Innovative design • Energy efficient terminals • Energy efficient buildings Source: Civil Aviation Authority

  45. Agenda • Context • Stakeholder Analysis • Problem Statement and Need Statement • Mission Requirements and Scope • Method of Analysis • Design Alternatives • Design of Experiment • Project Plan

  46. Design of Experiment Collect emissions data from AIT Analyze data to determine largest contributions of emissions Implement proposed alternatives to reduce emissions from inputs Provide recommendations for system optimization Sample Optimization Requirement: “The airport shall have reduced net CO2 emissions by 50% compared to 2005 level by 2050.” Source: International Air Transport Association (IATA)

  47. Agenda • Context • Stakeholder Analysis • Problem Statement and Need Statement • Mission Requirements and Scope • Method of Analysis • Design Alternatives • Design of Experiment • Project Plan

  48. WBS

  49. Plans for SYST 495 • Design and Code Simulation • Finalize emissions indices and vehicle specific factors for AIT inputs (WBS 2.3) • Test and Validate Simulation • Input data from Denver International and Seattle Tacoma Inventory Results to AIT, compare output from AIT to actual (WBS 2.4, WBS 2.5) • Finalize Design of Experiment • Research European GHG goals, formulate suggestions for proposed US GHG goals (WBS 3.3) • Run Simulation and Analyze Results • Apply AIT to Dulles Airport: Analyze output, compare with formulated goals (WBS 3.1, WBS 3.2) • Conduct Sensitivity Analysis (using Value Hierarchy) (WBS 3.4) • Define Final Design and Develop Recommendations (WBS 3.4)

  50. Schedule