Perubahan bahan genetik mutasi
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Perubahan bahan genetik: Mutasi. What is a Mutation? A mutation : a permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene. Mutations in a gene's DNA sequence can alter the amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by the gene. How does this happen ?

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Perubahan bahan genetik mutasi

Perubahan bahan genetik: Mutasi

What is a Mutation?

A mutation : a permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene.

Mutations in a gene's DNA sequence can alter the amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by the gene.

How does this happen?

Like words in a sentence, the DNA sequence of each gene determines the amino acid sequence for the protein it encodes.

The DNA sequence is interpreted in groups of three nucleotide bases, called codons.

Each codon specifies a single amino acid in a protein.


Mutate a sentence
Mutate a sentence!

  • We can think about the DNA sequence of a gene as a sentence made up entirely of three-letter words.

  • In the sequence, each three-letter word is a codon, specifying a single amino acid in a protein.

  • Have a look at this sentence:

    Thesunwashotbuttheoldmandidnotgethishat

  • If you were to split this sentence into individual three-letter words, you would probably read it like this:

    The sun was hot but the old man did not get his hat.


The sun was hot but the old man did not get his hat
The sun was hot but the old man did not get his hat.

  • This sentence represents a gene.

  • Each letter corresponds to a nucleotide base, and each word represents a codon.

  • What if you shifted the three-letter "reading frame?"

  • You would end up with

  • T hes unw ash otb utt heo ldm and idn otg eth ish at.


  • Or

    Th esu nwa sho tbu tth eol dma ndi dno tge thi sha t.

  • As you can see, only one of these three "reading frames" translates into an understandable sentence.

  • In the same way, only one three-letter reading frame within a gene codes for the correct protein.

  • Now, going back to the original sentence:

    Thesunwashotbuttheoldmandidnotgethishat

  • See how you can mutate the reading frame of this sentence by inserting or deleting letters within the sentence.

  • It's easy to make mutations that create "nonsense" sentences.


Mutasi
Mutasi

  • Genotype

  • Phenotype

  • Mutasi

  • Point mutation

  • Isolation of mutant


Notasi
Notasi

  • Pheontype :

    • Phe- : tidak mampu mensintesis phenylaanine

    • Lac+: mampu menggunakan laktosa sebagai sumber karbon

  • Genotype:

    • pheA :gen yang mengkode sintesis Phe

    • lacZ: gen yang mengkode kemampuan menggunakan laktosa


Mutasi1
Mutasi

  • Mutation: any change in the nucleotide sequence of the DNA in cell

    • change the phenotype

    • silent (non essential, non-coding part of genome)

  • Point mutation: the change in the DNA sequence range of a single base


Point mutation
Point mutation

  • Samesense mutation: same amino acid inserted

  • Mis-sense mutation: different amino acid inserted

  • Non-sense mutation: the creation of a termination codon- protein synthesis stops.

  • Frame shift mutation: from a point that a nucleotide is inserted or deleted the amino acids are altered.


1 same sense mutation
1.Same sense mutation

5’AUG CCU UCA AGA UGU GGG CAA-3’

Met Pro Ser Arg Cys Gly Gln

5’AUG CCU UCA AGA UGU GGA CAA-3’

Met Pro Ser Arg Cys Gly Gln


2 mis sense mutatio
2.Mis-sense mutatio

5’AUG CCU UCA AGA UGU GGG CAA-3’

Met Pro Ser Arg Cys Gly Gln

5’AUG CCU UCA GGA UGU GGG CAA-3’

Met Pro Ser Gly Cys Gly Gln


3 non sense mutation the creation of a termination codon protein synthesis stops
3. Non-sense mutation: the creation of a termination codon- protein synthesis stops.

5’AUG CCU UCA AGA UGU GGG CAA-3’

Met Pro Ser Arg Cys Gly Gln

5’AUG CCU UCA AGA UGA GGG CAA-3’

Met Pro Ser Arg Stop


Frame shift mutation
Frame shift mutation:

5’AUG CCU UCA AGA UGU GGG CAA-3’

Met Pro Ser Arg Cys Gly Gln

 deletion

5’AUG CCU UCA AG UGU GGG CAA-3’

Met Pro Ser Arg Cys Gly Gln

5’AUG CCU UCA AGU GUG GGC AA-3’

Met Pro Ser Ser Val Gly etc.


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