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Control of Airborne Respirable Dust Hazards: A Training Program for Underground Coal Miners. Penn State. The Penn State Miner Training Program University Park, PA 16802 Raja V. Ramani, Ph.D., P.E, C.M.S.P. Mark C. Radomsky, Ph.D. MPA, C.M.S.P. Joseph P. Flick, M.S., C.M.S.P.

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slide1

Control of Airborne Respirable Dust Hazards:A Training Program for Underground Coal Miners

Penn State

The Penn State

Miner Training Program

University Park, PA 16802

Raja V. Ramani, Ph.D., P.E, C.M.S.P.

Mark C. Radomsky, Ph.D. MPA, C.M.S.P.

Joseph P. Flick, M.S., C.M.S.P.

March 31, 2003

slide2

CENTERS FOR DISEASECONTROL AND PREVENTION

NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR

OCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH

GENERIC MINERAL TECHNOLOGY

CENTER ON RESPIRABLE DUST

PENNSYLVANIA BUREAU

OF DEEP MINE SAFETY

respirable dust training program
RESPIRABLE DUST TRAINING PROGRAM

Section 3

HEALTH HAZARDS OF

COAL MINE DUST

slide4

How Airborne Agents Can Affect the Lungs

The respiratory system can be damaged in several different ways by inhaled substances:

  • Very small particles like coal, silica, and asbestos can get into the alveoli and cause debilitating lung diseases
  • Inhaled chemical substances can irritate the respiratory tract at the site of contact (e.g. blasting aftergases)
airborne mine dusts
Airborne Mine Dusts

The particle size distribution of dust in mine air include: Respirable, Thoracic and Inhalable mass fractions.

  • Respirable dust deposits in the gas exchange region, < 5 microns in size
  • Thoracic dust deposits anywhere in the lung airways and the gas exchange region,

< 25 microns in size

  • Inhalable dust deposits anywhere in the respiratory tract, < 100 microns in size
slide6

According to the 1969 Coal Act,

any dust collected in a coal mine

by an approved sampler

for coal mine respirable dust

is respirable dust.

slide7

Particles less than

10 microns in size

are said to be in the

"Respirable Range"

If you breath them, they can make their way into the

alveolar sacs in the lung

slide8

Some types of respiratory illnesses can occur quickly after short-term exposures, or develop slowly after many years of exposure

variables affecting respiratory health
Variables Affecting Respiratory Health
  • The degree of any type of health hazard depends on many variables
  • Several common variables influence where, when, and what type of respiratory illness may occur
  • Individual variables include age and individual sensitivities
slide10

Common Variables Affecting Respiratory Health

  • How much was the person exposed to?
  • How long was the person exposed to the substance?
  • How often was the person exposed to the substance?
  • What were the toxic properties of the substance?
slide11

How much of a substance you breathe, and how long you breathe it are major factors in respiratory illnesses

slide12

Individual Variables Affecting Respiratory Health

  • Age
  • General health
  • Individual sensitivities
  • The efficiency of individual's lung clearing

mechanisms

  • Multi-system effect: When lung function is reduced, additional stress is placed on the cardiovascular system
health hazards of respirable coal mine dust
Health Hazards of Respirable Coal Mine Dust
  • Coal Mine Dust is not Coal Dust but a Complex mixture of more than fifty [50] elements and their oxides. It may contain Coal, Silica, Pyrite, Clays, Organic Materials, etc.
  • Health Hazards of Coal Mine Dust Are:
    • Coal Worker’s Pneumoconiosis
    • Silicosis
    • Mixed Dust Pneumoconiosis
    • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
slide14

Dust Caused Lung Disease

  • Dusts can cause various forms of “Pneumoconiosis,” which means “a disease caused from breathing dust”
  • Silicosis and Black Lung are two forms

of Pneumoconiosis, and result from breathing

silica or coal dust

slide15

Overview of Two Important Respiratory Conditions

  • Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis (CWP)
  • Silicosis
slide17

Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis

  • Also called Black Lung
  • A CWP is the accumulation of coal dust in the lungs and the lung tissue’s reaction to the dust
  • It usually takes several years of exposure to coal dust to make a diagnosis of CWP
  • Exposure to coal dust can reduce the efficiency of the mucociliary escalator in clearing inhaled coal dust from the lungs, and reduce the efficiency of the muscles in the airway walls
slide19

Silicosis

  • Silicosis is a type of pneumoconiosis caused by inhaling free crystalline silica (quartz)
  • When very small silica particles enter the alveolar sacs, the macrophages engulf, and attempt to destroy them
  • After engulfing the silica particles, the macrophages die and enzymes are released, causing fibrous tissue to develop
slide20

Silicosis

is the

oldest

known

occupational

disease

slide22

Normal Lung Versus Silicotic Lung

Normal lung

Silicotic lung

slide23

Proceed to Section 4

Respirable Coal Mine Dust Standards