What is the global heat reservoir for climate? – The Ocean! How much heating has gone where on Earth? What is the upper ocean heating since 1993? How are the data taken? How much data are available? What about the deep ocean? How important AABW vs. NADW ventilation?
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Gregory C. Johnson1,2, John M. Lyman3,1, & Sarah G. Purkey2,1
1NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, 2University of Washington School of Oceanography, 3JIMAR University of Hawaii
Top of atmosphere
Net heat input to Earth’s climate system
1961-2003: Oceans Take up 89% of Heat Absorbed by Earth
(from IPPC AR4, Figure 5.4)
Total is 159 Zeta-Joules
(or 0.24 W/m2 applied over the entire surface area
of the Earth over that entire time period)
Note: Ocean rate from 1993–2009 estimated at 0.74 W/m2
Error Budget uses curves from numerous investigators
Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD)
Reversing Therm. (courtesy SIO) MBT not shown
XBT (left) & Argo Float (right)
Subsurface Mooring (courtesy TAO/PMEL)
continuously for each of the 6.86
billion people on earth
(Raper et al. 2002)
Q = T + F
Radiative Forcing (Q) change partitioned between increased heat loss to space (T) and uptake of heat by the ocean (F) where T is the global average tropospheric temperature change and is a climate feedback factor
Largest climate sensitivity model takes up the most ocean heat (and the most heat deep in the ocean).
What is going on in the ocean depths is important for climate.
Also important for sea level rise.
(Meehl et al. 2005)