PASS Content Standard 3.1

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# PASS Content Standard 3.1 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

PASS Content Standard 3.1. All energy can be considered to be either kinetic, which is the energy of motion; potential, which depends on relative position; or energy contained by a field, such as electromagnetic waves. Pressure. A force that acts over a certain area. Force. Pressure =.

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PASS Content Standard 3.1

All energy can be considered to be either

kinetic, which is the energy of motion;

potential, which depends on relative

position; or energy contained by a field,

such as electromagnetic waves.

Pressure

A force that acts

over a certain area.

Force

Pressure =

Area

Fluids

Matter that is

able to flow.

Fluids

Exert pressure

because of the

motion of their

particles.

Fluids

Exert pressure

because of the

motion of their

particles.

Cartesian Diver

What is

happening?

press against the material.

The more air in the ball, the less

it will compress and the higher

it will bounce.

Can you dribble

a ball with no air?

Barometers

Measure

Air

Pressure

The pressure

exerted by air

at sea level

is 10.13 N/cm2

Atmospheric pressure

is usually reported by

the “weatherman” in

inches of mercury

“Normal”

atmospheric

pressure is

29.92 in Hg

29.92 inches

of mercury

Is that a lot?

29.92 inches

of mercury

Is that a lot?

Describe the

characteristics

of a low pressure

air mass

Describe the

characteristics

of a high pressure

air mass

What is a

weather "front"?

How does this picture relate

to atmospheric pressure?

Buoyancy

The force of a fluid

that pushes up on

an object in a fluid.

Buoyancy

If buoyant force is

equal to the weight of

the object, the object

will be suspended

inside the fluid.

Buoyancy

If buoyant force is

greater than the

weight of the object,

the object will

rise in the fluid.

Buoyancy

If buoyant force is

less than the weight

of the object,

the object will

sink in the fluid.

Archimedes Principle states that

the buoyant force on a submerged

object is equal to the weight of the

fluid that is displaced by the object.

The pressure in a moving stream

of fluid is less than the pressure

in the surrounding fluid.

The pressure in a moving stream

of fluid is less than the pressure

in the surrounding fluid.

The Bernoulli's Principle

keeps airplanes in the air.

D r a g

F r i c t i o n a s t h e p l a n e m o v e s t h r o u g h

t h e a i r .

L i f t

P r o d u c e d b y

u n e q u a l a i r p r e s s u r e s

o n t h e w i n g s u r f a c e s .

W e i g h t

G r a v i t y p u l l i n g

t h e p l a n e

d o w n .

The Physics

of Baseball

The bat exerts

pounds of force

on the ball.

Contact between

the ball and the

bat lasts only

The ball distorts

original diameter

when it contacts

the bat.

The decision to

swing has to

0.04 seconds.

Swing 1/100

second too

soon and the

ball goes foul

down the left

field side.

Swing 1/100

second too

late and the

ball goes foul

down the right

field side.

An aluminum

bat can hit a

baseball 30 feet

farther than a

wooden bat.

Why are corked

bats illegal?

Which can be hit farther,

a curve ball or a fast ball?

In general, a baseball

will curve in the same

direction that the front

of the ball turns.

The faster the spin,

the greater the break.

Why are corked

bats illegal?

A corked bat is lighter,

so its swing speed is faster.

But the baseball bounces

off the bat faster than the

cork can store energy that

might be given back to

the ball.

These two factors

combine to make

a corked bat hit the

ball less distance

the a regular bat.

Which can be hit farther,

a curve ball or a fast ball?

For maximum distance, hit the

ball just under its center of mass.

backspin to the ball -

providing lift.

A batted ball should be able to

travel no farther than 545 Feet.

A 94 mph fastball is thrown

with 1910 rpm backspin.

Hitting the fastball changes the

spin direction - provides 1827

rpm backspin.

442 feet

This reduces the lift

of the batted ball.

442 feet

A 78 mph curveball is thrown

with 1910 rpm topspin.

Hitting the curveball does not

change the spin direction - but

increases backspin to 2643 rpm.

455 feet

This increases the lift

of the batted ball.

455 feet

Questions

What is the

mass of a

baseball?

Why does

the ball

slow down

after leaving

the pitcher's

hand?

What is the

maximum

distance a

batted baseball

should be able

to travel?

A baseball travels

400 feet at sea level,

how far would the

same baseball

travel at an altitude

of 5000 feet?

Why do fly

balls travel

farther when

the humidity

is low?

During a

pitch, where

does a

curveball

do most of

its curving?

What

direction

does a

curveball

break?

Does a

corked bat

hit a baseball

farther than

a normal

wooden bat?

Why can a

curveball

be hit

farther than

a fastball?

Fastball: Hold the ball near the ends of your fingers

and throw with a normal overhand delivery.

The ball should roll off your fingers with a backwards

spin (it will tend to rise). Outfielders usually throw the

ball this way because the rising action allows them

to throw it considerably farther.

Curveball: "Choke" the ball (wedge it down between

the ball snaps down and to the right on release.

The resulting pitch should drop and curve to the left.

Screwball: Throw the ball like a curveball, but reverse

the wrist action and spins. Cock the wrist initially to the

right and "turn the ball over" to the left as you throw it.

The ball should break down and to the right.

Slider: Throw the ball like a football pass, with the wrist

cocked at a 90 degree angle .

The ball should curve slightly down and to the left.

End

Baseball

Physics

The study of the

pressure exerted

by fluids.

Pressure is transmitted equally

in all directions in a fluid

A pressure of

2 kg/cm2 in the

first cylinder is

transmitted

through the fluid

to the second

cylinder.

Since cylinder #2

has 5 times the

area of the first

cylinder, the

pressure is

multiplied

5 times.

The greater the

difference in size

between the two

cylinders, the

more the force

is multiplied.

The Ability

To Do Work

Potential Energy

Energy stored

in an object due

to its position.

Potential Energy

Gravitational potential energy,

GPE, is dependent on an

object’s height above the

surface of the earth.

Potential Energy

GPE = weight (N) X height (m)

weight = mass (kg) X g (9.8 m/s2)

The units are Joules

kilogram meters / s2

Potential Energy

Chemical Potential Energy -

energy due to condition

Kinetic Energy

Energy an object

has because of

its motion.

Kinetic Energy

1

MV2

KE =

2

Potential energy

can be changed

into kinetic energy

and kinetic energy

can be changed into

potential energy.

Potential energy

can be changed

into kinetic energy

and kinetic energy

can be changed into

potential energy.

Potential energy

can be changed

into kinetic energy

and kinetic energy

can be changed into

potential energy.

The Gravicar changes

GPE into Kinetic Energy

Making

Useful

There are

5 types

mechanical

heat

chemical

electromagnetic

nuclear

There are

5 energy types

Mechanical energy

is associated

with motion.

There are

5 energy types

Heat energy is

the internal

motion of particles.

There are

5 energy types

Chemical energy bonds

atoms and molecules

together.

There are

5 energy types

Electromagnetic energy

is contained in

moving electric

charges.

There are

5 energy types

Nuclear energy

holds the

atomic nucleus

together.

E = energy in Joules

m = mass in kilograms

c = speed of light (300,000 km/s)

Think of matter and energy as two

forms of the same thing that can

be converted from one to another.

Nuclear Fission

Splitting of a

heavy atomic nucleus

Nuclear Fusion

Fusing two or more

light-weight atomic nuclei

Man's first atomic explosion

July 16, 1945, at 5:29:45 a.m.

"Little Boy" was dropped on

Hiroshima, Japan on August 6, 1945.

and had an explosive force of

"Fat Man" was dropped on

Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945.

and had an explosive force of

When is

Daylight Savings Time?

First Sunday

in April

Last Sunday

in October

How does

daylight savings time

conserve energy?

What is

Electricity?

Electricity is energy associated with charged

particles as they move from place to place

Like charges

repel

Opposite charges

attract

Static Electricity

Unequal charges

on an object.

Static electricity

has high voltage

and low output

Charge is transferred by

Conduction

Friction

Induction

Charge is transferred by

Conduction

When an object with an excess

of electrons touches a neutral

object, electrons are passed

to the neutral object.

Charge is transferred by

Friction

When an object whose electrons

are loosely held rubs against

another object, electrons are

transferred to the second object.

Charge is transferred by

Induction

A neutral object acquires a charge

from a charged object close by

What are

the two

types of

electric

current?

Direct Current

Current flows in

only one direction

Dry Cell

Batteries change chemical

energy into electrical energy.

Alternating Current

Current flow changes

direction periodically

All AC electricity

produced in the U.S.

is "60 cycle"

electricity.

Powerplants

Produce AC

power plants in the US

Transmission

and

Distribution

Transmission System

Sends generated

electricity over

long distances

Transmission System

System contains

"high voltage"

"three-phase"

electricity

Transmission System

Voltage ranges

from 100,000

to 800,000 volts

Transmission System

Transmission lines end when

they reach a substation

Transformers are used to

change electric voltage.

When electricity is supplied to the

primary coil, it magnetizes the core

and produces a voltage in the

secondary coil.

The voltage produced depends

on the ratio of the number

of turns in each coil.

Step-Down

Transformer

The primary coil below has 10 turns,

while the secondary has 2. The ratio

is 5 to 1 - which means the voltage

produced across the secondary will

be 1/5 the voltage of the primary.

Step-Up

Transformer

The primary coil below has 3 turns,

while the secondary has 6. The ratio

is 1 to 2 - which means the voltage

produced across the secondary will

be twicethe voltage of the primary.

Distribution System

Takes electricity

from the substation

Distribution System

"low voltage"

"three-phase"

Distribution System

Voltage is 10,000

or below

Distribution System

The "pole" transformer

reduces voltage

for the final time.

Individual Users

Distribution System

"low voltage"

"single-phase"

Distribution System

voltage

is usually

220/110

Find out WHY

a fuse blows

before replacing

Plug fuse

Cartridge fuse

Why do some meters have 5 dials

and other meters have only 4?

A conductor is needed

for electricity to flow

A conductor is needed

for electricity to flow

E l e c t r i c C i r c u i t

S e r i e s

C i r c u i t

P a r a l l e l

C i r c u i t

E l e c t r i c C i r c u i t

S e r i e s C i r c u i t

E l e c t r i c C i r c u i t

S e r i e s C i r c u i t

There is only one pathway

for the electrons

E l e c t r i c C i r c u i t

P a r a l l e l C i r c u i t

E l e c t r i c C i r c u i t

P a r a l l e l C i r c u i t

There are multiple pathways

for the electrons

Ohm

A measure of the

resistance to the

flow of current.

Volts

Amps =

Ohms

Voltage

A measure of the energy

available to move electrons

Voltage

The electric potential

difference between two points

Amperage

A measure of the amount of

current flowing past a given

point in a given time.

High Amperage

Low Amperage

E l e c t r i c P o w e r
• C a l c u l a t i n g:

P o w e r =

V o l t a g e X C u r r e n t

E l e c t r i c P o w e r
• C a l c u l a t i n g:

W a t t s =

V o l t s X A m p s

E l e c t r i c P o w e r
• C a l c u l a t i n g:

E n e r g y =

P o w e r X T i m e

1.000

Amps make

electricity

dangerous

0.200

0.100

0.010

0.001

Magnetism

What causes

this force?

Magnetism

A force of attraction

or repulsion due

to an arrangement

of electrons.

Magnetic Field

The area

around a magnet

where magnetic

forces act.

Magnetic Poles

The forces are concentrated

at the end of a magnet.

Like poles repel.

Unlike poles

attract.

Magnetic Poles

Each of these three magnets

repels the other two.

How could you arrange the

magnets so that each

attracts the other

Magnetic Poles

A triangle arrangement

brings the north pole of

each magnet to the

south pole of the others.

Magnetic induction:

the process by which a material

During this process,

atoms in a substance

are aligned.

Temporary magnets:

Materials that are easy to magnetize,

and loose their magnetism quickly.

Permanent magnets:

Materials that are hard

to magnetize, but tend

to stay magnetized.

Magnetosphere:

the region of the earth's magnetic field.

Extends beyond

the atmosphere.

Composed of

charged particles

given off by the sun.

The Earth’s magnetosphere

extends 37,300 miles from

the Earth on the side

facing the sun.

And much

farther on the

side away from

the sun.

A compass is used to detect

the Earth's magnetic field.

Aurora Borealis

Collision of charged particles from the Sun with charged particles in the Earth’s upper atmosphere

Aurora Australis

Collision of charged particles from the Sun with charged particles in the Earth’s upper atmosphere

Aurora Borealis

Aurora Australis

Solar Wind

Aurora Borealis

Aurora Australis

The ultimate energy source for

the polar auroras is the solar wind.

Polar auroras

go through

cycles with

solar activity.

Kp Index

Date, 2004

Electromagnets

Produced by a current running

through a coil of wire.

The strength of an

electromagnet is

increased by

wrapping the

coil around an

iron core.

Electromagnets

The magnetic field is active

only when the current is flowing.

The more coils of wire,

the stronger magnet.

Electromagnetic

Induction

When a conducting wire

cuts across magnetic

lines of force, a

current is produced.

Electric Motors

Convert electric

energy into

mechanical

energy.

Electric Motors

magnet

split rings

magnet

Generators

Convert mechanical energy

into electrical energy.

END

Content Standard 3.1

Archimedes Principle states that

the buoyant force on a submerged

object is equal to the weight of the

fluid that is displaced by the object.

A cylindrical mass and

bucket are suspended

from a spring scale

above a beaker with

an overflow spout.

Note the scale

Archimedes Principle states that

the buoyant force on a submerged

object is equal to the weight of the

fluid that is displaced by the object.

Submerge the mass

by raising the beaker.

Pour the water from

the catch beaker into

the hanging bucket