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PASS Content Standard 3.1. All energy can be considered to be either kinetic, which is the energy of motion; potential, which depends on relative position; or energy contained by a field, such as electromagnetic waves. Pressure. A force that acts over a certain area. Force. Pressure =.

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slide1

PASS Content Standard 3.1

All energy can be considered to be either

kinetic, which is the energy of motion;

potential, which depends on relative

position; or energy contained by a field,

such as electromagnetic waves.

slide2

Pressure

A force that acts

over a certain area.

Force

Pressure =

Area

slide4

Fluids

Matter that is

able to flow.

slide5

Fluids

Exert pressure

because of the

motion of their

particles.

slide6

Fluids

Exert pressure

because of the

motion of their

particles.

slide7

Cartesian Diver

What is

happening?

slide8

Air molecules inside a basketball

press against the material.

The more air in the ball, the less

it will compress and the higher

it will bounce.

Can you dribble

a ball with no air?

slide9

Barometers

Measure

Air

Pressure

slide10

The pressure

exerted by air

at sea level

is 10.13 N/cm2

slide11

Atmospheric pressure

is usually reported by

the “weatherman” in

inches of mercury

“Normal”

atmospheric

pressure is

29.92 in Hg

slide12

29.92 inches

of mercury

Is that a lot?

slide13

29.92 inches

of mercury

Is that a lot?

slide16

Describe the

characteristics

of a low pressure

air mass

slide17

Describe the

characteristics

of a high pressure

air mass

slide18

What is a

weather "front"?

slide19

How does this picture relate

to atmospheric pressure?

slide20

Buoyancy

The force of a fluid

that pushes up on

an object in a fluid.

slide21

Buoyancy

If buoyant force is

equal to the weight of

the object, the object

will be suspended

inside the fluid.

slide23

Buoyancy

If buoyant force is

greater than the

weight of the object,

the object will

rise in the fluid.

slide25

Buoyancy

If buoyant force is

less than the weight

of the object,

the object will

sink in the fluid.

slide27

Archimedes Principle states that

the buoyant force on a submerged

object is equal to the weight of the

fluid that is displaced by the object.

slide30

The pressure in a moving stream

of fluid is less than the pressure

in the surrounding fluid.

slide31

The pressure in a moving stream

of fluid is less than the pressure

in the surrounding fluid.

slide32

The Bernoulli's Principle

keeps airplanes in the air.

slide40

D r a g

F r i c t i o n a s t h e p l a n e m o v e s t h r o u g h

t h e a i r .

slide41

L i f t

P r o d u c e d b y

u n e q u a l a i r p r e s s u r e s

o n t h e w i n g s u r f a c e s .

slide42

W e i g h t

G r a v i t y p u l l i n g

t h e p l a n e

d o w n .

slide47

The Physics

of Baseball

slide48

The bat exerts

about 8000

pounds of force

on the ball.

slide49

Contact between

the ball and the

bat lasts only

about 1/1000 sec.

slide50

The ball distorts

to about half its

original diameter

when it contacts

the bat.

slide52

The decision to

swing has to

be made within

0.04 seconds.

slide53

Swing 1/100

second too

soon and the

ball goes foul

down the left

field side.

slide54

Swing 1/100

second too

late and the

ball goes foul

down the right

field side.

slide55

An aluminum

bat can hit a

baseball 30 feet

farther than a

wooden bat.

slide57

Why are corked

bats illegal?

slide58

Which can be hit farther,

a curve ball or a fast ball?

slide60

In general, a baseball

will curve in the same

direction that the front

of the ball turns.

slide61

The faster the spin,

the greater the break.

slide62

Why are corked

bats illegal?

slide63

A corked bat is lighter,

so its swing speed is faster.

But the baseball bounces

off the bat faster than the

cork can store energy that

might be given back to

the ball.

slide64

These two factors

combine to make

a corked bat hit the

ball less distance

the a regular bat.

slide65

Which can be hit farther,

a curve ball or a fast ball?

slide66

For maximum distance, hit the

ball just under its center of mass.

This always adds

backspin to the ball -

providing lift.

A batted ball should be able to

travel no farther than 545 Feet.

slide67

A 94 mph fastball is thrown

with 1910 rpm backspin.

slide68

Hitting the fastball changes the

spin direction - provides 1827

rpm backspin.

442 feet

slide69

This reduces the lift

of the batted ball.

442 feet

slide70

A 78 mph curveball is thrown

with 1910 rpm topspin.

slide71

Hitting the curveball does not

change the spin direction - but

increases backspin to 2643 rpm.

455 feet

slide72

This increases the lift

of the batted ball.

455 feet

slide73

Reading

Questions

slide74

What is the

mass of a

baseball?

slide75

Why does

the ball

slow down

after leaving

the pitcher's

hand?

slide76

What is the

maximum

distance a

batted baseball

should be able

to travel?

slide77

A baseball travels

400 feet at sea level,

how far would the

same baseball

travel at an altitude

of 5000 feet?

slide78

Why do fly

balls travel

farther when

the humidity

is low?

slide79

During a

pitch, where

does a

curveball

do most of

its curving?

slide80

What

direction

does a

curveball

break?

slide81

Does a

corked bat

hit a baseball

farther than

a normal

wooden bat?

slide82

Why can a

curveball

be hit

farther than

a fastball?

slide83

Fastball: Hold the ball near the ends of your fingers

and throw with a normal overhand delivery.

The ball should roll off your fingers with a backwards

spin (it will tend to rise). Outfielders usually throw the

ball this way because the rising action allows them

to throw it considerably farther.

slide84

Curveball: "Choke" the ball (wedge it down between

your thumb and forefinger), and cock your wrist to the left;

the ball snaps down and to the right on release.

The resulting pitch should drop and curve to the left.

slide85

Screwball: Throw the ball like a curveball, but reverse

the wrist action and spins. Cock the wrist initially to the

right and "turn the ball over" to the left as you throw it.

The ball should break down and to the right.

slide86

Slider: Throw the ball like a football pass, with the wrist

cocked at a 90 degree angle .

The ball should curve slightly down and to the left.

slide87

End

Baseball

Physics

slide89

The study of the

pressure exerted

by fluids.

slide90

Pressure is transmitted equally

in all directions in a fluid

slide91

A pressure of

2 kg/cm2 in the

first cylinder is

transmitted

through the fluid

to the second

cylinder.

slide92

Since cylinder #2

has 5 times the

area of the first

cylinder, the

pressure is

multiplied

5 times.

slide93

The greater the

difference in size

between the two

cylinders, the

more the force

is multiplied.

slide95

The Ability

To Do Work

slide98

Potential Energy

Energy stored

in an object due

to its position.

slide99

Potential Energy

Gravitational potential energy,

GPE, is dependent on an

object’s height above the

surface of the earth.

slide100

Potential Energy

GPE = weight (N) X height (m)

weight = mass (kg) X g (9.8 m/s2)

slide102

The units are Joules

kilogram meters / s2

slide104

Potential Energy

Chemical Potential Energy -

energy due to condition

slide106

Kinetic Energy

Energy an object

has because of

its motion.

slide107

Kinetic Energy

1

MV2

KE =

2

slide108

Potential energy

can be changed

into kinetic energy

and kinetic energy

can be changed into

potential energy.

slide109

Potential energy

can be changed

into kinetic energy

and kinetic energy

can be changed into

potential energy.

slide110

Potential energy

can be changed

into kinetic energy

and kinetic energy

can be changed into

potential energy.

slide111

The Gravicar changes

GPE into Kinetic Energy

slide116

Making

Useful

slide118

There are

5 types

mechanical

heat

chemical

electromagnetic

nuclear

slide120

There are

5 energy types

Mechanical energy

is associated

with motion.

slide121

There are

5 energy types

Heat energy is

the internal

motion of particles.

slide122

There are

5 energy types

Chemical energy bonds

atoms and molecules

together.

slide123

There are

5 energy types

Electromagnetic energy

is contained in

moving electric

charges.

slide124

There are

5 energy types

Nuclear energy

holds the

atomic nucleus

together.

slide126

E = energy in Joules

m = mass in kilograms

c = speed of light (300,000 km/s)

slide127

Think of matter and energy as two

forms of the same thing that can

be converted from one to another.

slide128

Nuclear Fission

Splitting of a

heavy atomic nucleus

slide129

Nuclear Fusion

Fusing two or more

light-weight atomic nuclei

slide131

Man's first atomic explosion

July 16, 1945, at 5:29:45 a.m.

slide132

"Little Boy" was dropped on

Hiroshima, Japan on August 6, 1945.

slide133

It weighed about 9,000 pounds

and had an explosive force of

about 20,000 Tons of TNT

slide135

"Fat Man" was dropped on

Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945.

slide136

It weighed about 10,000 pounds

and had an explosive force of

about 20,000 Tons of TNT

slide140

When is

Daylight Savings Time?

slide141

First Sunday

in April

Last Sunday

in October

slide142

How does

daylight savings time

conserve energy?

slide143

What is

Electricity?

slide144

Electricity is energy associated with charged

particles as they move from place to place

Like charges

repel

Opposite charges

attract

slide146

Static Electricity

Unequal charges

on an object.

slide148

Static electricity

has high voltage

and low output

slide150

Charge is transferred by

Conduction

Friction

Induction

slide151

Charge is transferred by

Conduction

When an object with an excess

of electrons touches a neutral

object, electrons are passed

to the neutral object.

slide153

Charge is transferred by

Friction

When an object whose electrons

are loosely held rubs against

another object, electrons are

transferred to the second object.

slide155

Charge is transferred by

Induction

A neutral object acquires a charge

from a charged object close by

without contact being made.

slide158

What are

the two

types of

electric

current?

slide159

Direct Current

Current flows in

only one direction

slide161

Dry Cell

Batteries change chemical

energy into electrical energy.

slide163

Alternating Current

Current flow changes

direction periodically

slide164

All AC electricity

produced in the U.S.

is "60 cycle"

electricity.

slide165

Powerplants

Produce AC

slide169

There are about 110 nuclear

power plants in the US

slide173

Transmission

and

Distribution

slide174

Transmission System

Sends generated

electricity over

long distances

slide175

Transmission System

System contains

"high voltage"

"three-phase"

electricity

slide176

Transmission System

Voltage ranges

from 100,000

to 800,000 volts

slide177

Transmission System

Transmission lines end when

they reach a substation

slide179

Transformers are used to

change electric voltage.

slide181

When electricity is supplied to the

primary coil, it magnetizes the core

and produces a voltage in the

secondary coil.

slide182

The voltage produced depends

on the ratio of the number

of turns in each coil.

slide183

Step-Down

Transformer

slide184

The primary coil below has 10 turns,

while the secondary has 2. The ratio

is 5 to 1 - which means the voltage

produced across the secondary will

be 1/5 the voltage of the primary.

slide185

Step-Up

Transformer

slide186

The primary coil below has 3 turns,

while the secondary has 6. The ratio

is 1 to 2 - which means the voltage

produced across the secondary will

be twicethe voltage of the primary.

slide187

Distribution System

Takes electricity

from the substation

slide188

Distribution System

"low voltage"

"three-phase"

slide189

Distribution System

Voltage is 10,000

or below

slide190

Distribution System

The "pole" transformer

reduces voltage

for the final time.

Individual Users

slide191

Distribution System

"low voltage"

"single-phase"

slide192

Distribution System

voltage

is usually

220/110

slide195

Circuit Overload

Find out WHY

a fuse blows

before replacing

slide196

Plug fuse

Cartridge fuse

slide199

Reading an Electric Meter

Why do some meters have 5 dials

and other meters have only 4?

slide210

A conductor is needed

for electricity to flow

slide211

A conductor is needed

for electricity to flow

e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t
E l e c t r i c C i r c u i t

S e r i e s

C i r c u i t

P a r a l l e l

C i r c u i t

e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t1
E l e c t r i c C i r c u i t

S e r i e s C i r c u i t

e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t2
E l e c t r i c C i r c u i t

S e r i e s C i r c u i t

There is only one pathway

for the electrons

e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t3
E l e c t r i c C i r c u i t

P a r a l l e l C i r c u i t

e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t4
E l e c t r i c C i r c u i t

P a r a l l e l C i r c u i t

There are multiple pathways

for the electrons

slide220

Ohm

A measure of the

resistance to the

flow of current.

slide221

Volts

Amps =

Ohms

slide222

Voltage

A measure of the energy

available to move electrons

slide223

Voltage

The electric potential

difference between two points

slide224

Amperage

A measure of the amount of

current flowing past a given

point in a given time.

High Amperage

Low Amperage

e l e c t r i c p o w e r
E l e c t r i c P o w e r
  • C a l c u l a t i n g:

P o w e r =

V o l t a g e X C u r r e n t

e l e c t r i c p o w e r1
E l e c t r i c P o w e r
  • C a l c u l a t i n g:

W a t t s =

V o l t s X A m p s

e l e c t r i c p o w e r2
E l e c t r i c P o w e r
  • C a l c u l a t i n g:

E n e r g y =

P o w e r X T i m e

slide228

1.000

Amps make

electricity

dangerous

0.200

0.100

0.010

0.001

slide229

Magnetism

What causes

this force?

slide230

Magnetism

A force of attraction

or repulsion due

to an arrangement

of electrons.

slide232

Magnetic Field

The area

around a magnet

where magnetic

forces act.

slide233

Magnetic Poles

The forces are concentrated

at the end of a magnet.

Like poles repel.

Unlike poles

attract.

slide234

Magnetic Poles

Each of these three magnets

repels the other two.

How could you arrange the

magnets so that each

attracts the other

two instead?

slide235

Magnetic Poles

A triangle arrangement

brings the north pole of

each magnet to the

south pole of the others.

slide236

Magnetic induction:

the process by which a material

is made into a magnet.

During this process,

atoms in a substance

are aligned.

slide237

Temporary magnets:

Materials that are easy to magnetize,

and loose their magnetism quickly.

Permanent magnets:

Materials that are hard

to magnetize, but tend

to stay magnetized.

slide239

Magnetosphere:

the region of the earth's magnetic field.

Extends beyond

the atmosphere.

Composed of

charged particles

given off by the sun.

slide240

The Earth’s magnetosphere

extends 37,300 miles from

the Earth on the side

facing the sun.

And much

farther on the

side away from

the sun.

slide241

A compass is used to detect

the Earth's magnetic field.

slide243

Aurora Borealis

Collision of charged particles from the Sun with charged particles in the Earth’s upper atmosphere

slide244

Aurora Australis

Collision of charged particles from the Sun with charged particles in the Earth’s upper atmosphere

slide246

Aurora Borealis

Aurora Australis

Solar Wind

slide247

Aurora Borealis

Aurora Australis

The ultimate energy source for

the polar auroras is the solar wind.

slide248

Polar auroras

go through

cycles with

solar activity.

Kp Index

Date, 2004

slide250

Electromagnets

Produced by a current running

through a coil of wire.

The strength of an

electromagnet is

increased by

wrapping the

coil around an

iron core.

slide251

Electromagnets

The magnetic field is active

only when the current is flowing.

The more coils of wire,

the stronger magnet.

slide252

Electromagnetic

Induction

When a conducting wire

cuts across magnetic

lines of force, a

current is produced.

slide253

Electric Motors

Convert electric

energy into

mechanical

energy.

slide254

Electric Motors

magnet

split rings

magnet

slide256

Generators

Convert mechanical energy

into electrical energy.

slide257

END

Content Standard 3.1

slide258

Archimedes Principle states that

the buoyant force on a submerged

object is equal to the weight of the

fluid that is displaced by the object.

A cylindrical mass and

bucket are suspended

from a spring scale

above a beaker with

an overflow spout.

Note the scale

reading.

slide259

Archimedes Principle states that

the buoyant force on a submerged

object is equal to the weight of the

fluid that is displaced by the object.

Submerge the mass

by raising the beaker.

Pour the water from

the catch beaker into

the hanging bucket

to return to the

original scale

reading.